Table 2

Age-adjusted risk factors associated with HIV infection by gender among sexually active participants, N = 5,789
Females Males
N % HIV+ aORa 95% CIb P-value N % HIV+ aOR 95% CI P-value
Total 3,243 30.6 2,546 19.7
Age (years) median = 28 median = 28 median = 28
IQRc = (21, 37) IQR = (22, 37) IQR = (21, 38)
Demographic characteristics
Marital Status
Never married 732 24.4 ref 1,180 8.2 ref
Married 2,020 25.5 0.6 (0.5, 0.8) <0.001 1,168 28.1 1.5 (1.1, 2.0) 0.009
Living together 29 77.8 7.1 (2.9, 19.9) <0.001 21 37.0 2.3 (0.8, 6.1) 0.099
Widowed 292 60.2 2.7 (1.9, 3.7) <0.001 81 52.0 5.2 (3.0, 9.0) <0.001
Divorced/Separated 170 60.1 2.8 (1.9, 4.1) <0.001 96 30.9 1.9 (1.1, 3.1) 0.017
Mobility
Away for >1 month (last 12 mos.) 611 32.9 1.4 (1.1, 1.8) 0.003 581 19.4 0.8 (0.6, 1.1) 0.234
Sexual behavior characteristics
Number of lifetime sexual partners for:
Females:1 Males:1 to 2 1,259 17.5 ref 718 12.4 ref
2 to 4 3 to 6 1,637 36.0 2.4 (2.0, 2.9) <0.001 1,051 17.6 1.4 (1.0, 1.9) 0.024
≥5 ≥7 310 55.1 4.5 (3.4, 6.0) <0.001 661 28.9 1.8 (1.4, 2.5) 0.001
Used condom at last intercourse 910 41.8 2.2 (1.8, 2.6) <0.001 960 21.1 1.9 (1.5, 2.4) <0.001
Ever paid for sex 146 29.4 1.4 (0.9, 2.1) 0.098
Paid for sex (last 12 mos.) 68 29.1 1.6 (0.9, 2.7) 0.124
Currently pregnant 179 17.9 0.7 (0.4, 1.0) 0.035
Other risk characteristics
Ever tested for HIV 2,389 30.9 0.9 (0.8, 1.1) 0.299 1,093 26.7 1.5 (1.2, 1.9) <0.001
Received injection (last 12 mos.) 932 33.6 1.3 (1.1, 1.5) 0.004 307 28.9 1.7 (1.2, 2.2) 0.001
Uses tobacco 442 43.6 1.4 (1.1, 1.7) 0.004 956 21.8 1.1 (0.9, 1.3) 0.580
Ever drank alcohol 1,467 22.3 1.2 (0.9, 1.5) 0.177
STI symptoms (last 12 mos.) 480 42.7 1.7 (1.4, 2.1) <0.001 342 31.3 2.2 (1.6, 2.9) <0.001
Male Circumcision (MC) categories
Circumcised 1,558 20.3 0.9 (0.7, 1.1) 0.321
Circumcision type:
Uncircumcised 988 18.9 ref
Traditional method 1,434 20.9 0.9 (0.7, 1.2) 0.485
Healthcare method 120 14.1 0.6 (0.3, 1.0) 0.053
Sexual debut and MC:
Uncircumcised 988 18.9 ref
Sex before MC 556 19.5 0.8 (0.6, 1.0) 0.053
Same year 200 24.0 1.2 (0.8, 1.7) 0.478
MC before sex 802 20.0 1.0 (0.7, 1.2) 0.715

aaOR, age-adjusted odds ratio: ~ AGE + AGE2. Females 15 to 49 years old; males 15 to 59 years old.

b95% CI, 95% confidence intervals.

cIQR, interquartile range.

Coburn et al.

Coburn et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:224   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-224

Open Data