Table 4

Risks of cardiovascular disease and cancer as causes of death over 12 years according hypnotic use
Cardiovascular disease deaths Cancer deaths
No n = 6,311 Yes N = 385 Model 1a Model 2b No n = 6,174 Yes N = 522 Model 1a Model 2b
Variable n % n % HR [95% CI] P HR [95% CI] P n % n % HR [95% CI] P HR [95% CI] P
Hypnotic use
 No 4,962 78.62 280 72.73 1 0.02 1 0.56 4,818 78.04 424 81.23 1 0.38 1 0.73
 Yes 1,349 21.38 105 27.27 1.32 [1.04;1.66] 0.92 [0.71;1.20] 1,356 21.96 98 18.77 0.90 [0.72;1.13] 0.96 [0.74;1.23]
Number of hypnotics
 0 4,962 78.62 280 72.73 1 0.03 1 0.78 4,818 78.04 424 81.23 1 0.67 1 0.94
 1 1,154 18.29 88 22.86 1.26 [0.99;1.61] 0.94 [0.72;1.23] 1,157 18.74 85 16.28 0.91 [0.72;1.15] 0.96 [0.74;1.25]
 ≥2 195 3.09 17 4.42 1.69 [1.03;2.76] 0.83 [0.45;1.52] 199 3.22 13 2.49 0.89 [0.51;1.54] 0.93 [0.50;1.72]
BZD
 No 5,321 84.31 305 79.22 1 0.004 1 0.60 5,170 83.74 456 87.36 1 0.27 1 0.42
 Yes 990 15.69 80 20.78 1.45 [1.13;1.87] 1.08 [0.81;1.43] 1,004 16.26 66 12.64 0.86 [0.66;1.12] 0.89 [0.66;1.19]
BZD-like compounds
 No 6,008 95.20 367 95.32 1 0.65 1 0.12 5,879 95.22 496 95.02 1 0.78 1 0.44
 Yes 303 4.80 18 4.68 0.90 [0.56;1.44] 0.67 [0.40;1.11] 295 4.78 26 4.98 1.06 [0.71;1.57] 1.18 [0.77;1.82]
Miscellaneous medications
 No 6,123 97.02 369 95.84 1 0.64 1 0.43 5,986 96.95 506 96.93 1 0.88 1 0.95
 Yes 188 2.98 16 4.16 1.13 [0.68;1.87] 0.80 [0.45;1.41] 188 3.05 16 3.07 0.96 [0.58;1.59] 1.02 [0.59;1.74]

aAdjusted for age, study center, and gender; badjusted for all covariates in model 1 plus high level of education, confinement, alcohol intake, smoking status, history of cardio-cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, Mini Mental State Examination score, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mellitus, depressive symptoms, antidepressants use, Spielberger trait anxiety score, excessive daytime sleepiness, and number of insomnia complaints. BZD, benzodiazepines; CI, confidence interval; HR, hazard ratios.

Jaussent et al.

Jaussent et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:212   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-212

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