Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the PREDIMED trial participants according to intervention group
Characteristic MD+EVOO, n = 2441 MD+nuts, n = 2367 Control diet, n = 2350
Female sex, n (%) 1424 (58.3) 1275 (53.9) 1402 (59.7)
Age, years 66.9 ± 6.2 66.6 ± 6.1 67.3 ± 6.3
Smoking habit, n (%)
 Never-smoker 1505 (61.7) 1414 (59.7) 1462 (62.2)
 Former smoker 599 (24.5) 613 (25.9) 561 (23.9)
 Current smoker 337 (13.8) 340 (14.4) 327 (13.9)
Body mass indexa 29.9 ± 3.7 29.7 ± 3.8 30.2 ± 4.0
Waist circumference, cm 100 ± 10 100 ± 11 101 ± 11
Hypertension, n (%)b 1999 (81.9) 1951 (82.4) 1972 (83.9)
Systolic BP, mmHg 148 ± 19 149 ± 18 149 ± 19
Diastolic BP, mmHg 83 ± 10 83 ± 10 82 ± 10
Anti-hypertensive therapy, n (%) 1660 (68.0) 1648 (68.4) 1666 (70.9)
Type 2 diabetes, n (%)c 1224 (50.1) 1092 (46.1) 1127 (48.0)
Treatment for type 2 diabetes, n (%) 801 (32.8) 715 (30.2) 786 (33.5)
Dyslipidemia, n (%)d 1755 (71.9) 1741 (73.6) 1697 (72.2)
Lipid-lowering therapy, n (%) 1095 (44.9) 1041 (44.0) 1032 (43.9)
Family history of premature CHD, n (%)e 553 (22.7) 514 (21.7) 538 (22.9)
MD adherence scoref 8.7 ± 2.0 8.8 ± 2.0 8.4 ± 2.0
Dietary sodium intake, g/day 2.4 ± 0.9 2.4 ± 0.9 2.3 ± 0.9
Dietary potassium intake, g/day 4.4 ± 1.2 4.4 ± 1.1 4.2 ± 1.1
Dietary calcium intake, g/day 1.1 ± 0.4 1.1 ± 0.4 1.0 ± 0.4

CHD, coronary heart disease; MD+EVOO, Mediterranean diet plus extra virgin olive oil; MD+nuts, Mediterranean diet plus nuts.

Values are mean ± SD unless otherwise specified.

aBody mass index is the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters.

bHypertension was defined as systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg, or use of anti-hypertensive therapy.

cDiabetes was defined as fasting blood glucose ≥126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l) on two occasions, or 2-hour plasma glucose ≥ 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l) after a 75 g oral glucose load, or use of anti-diabetic medication.

dDyslipidemia was defined as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol >160 mg/dl, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤40 mg/dl in men or ≤50 mg/dl in women, or use of lipid-lowering therapy.

eA family history of premature CHD was defined as diagnosis of the disease in a male first-degree relative before the age of 55 years or in a female first-degree relative before the age of 65 years.

fMedDiet adherence score (minimum adherence = 0 points; maximum adherence = 14 points).

Toledo et al.

Toledo et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:207   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-207

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