Table 3

Comparison of perceived causes for cholera in endemic areas of three African settings, by site and gender
Category SE-DRC, n = 360 Western Kenya, n = 379 Zanzibar, n = 356
Overall Total reported Prominence Total reported Prominence Total reported Prominence
Dirty environment*** 93.3 1.83 96.3 1.97 97.8 2.99
Drinking contaminated water*** 94.7 2.68 95.5 2.21 95.2 1.65
Eating unprotected/spoiled food*** 94.7 1.94 93.1 1.75 94.9 1.44
Flies* 95.3 1.44 96.0 1.30 96.9 1.60
Lack of latrinesa*** 93.3 1.72 95.8 1.79 NA NA
Site comparison Urban Rural P value Urban Rural P value Urban Rural P value
Total reported Prominence Total reported Prominence Total reported Prominence Total reported Prominence Total reported Prominence Total reported Prominence
Contact with contaminated water 84.4 1.17 89.4 1.12 0.657 55.8 0.64 63.0 0.75 0.115 85.5 1.07 91.0 1.58 <0.001
Dirty environment 91.7 1.83 95.0 1.82 0.631 97.9 2.29 94.7 1.63 <0.001 99.4 3.68 96.0 2.30 <0.001
Drinking contaminated water 93.3 2.34 96.1 3.02 <0.001 97.4 2.18 93.7 2.23 0.778 96.1 1.65 94.4 1.66 0.384
Eating forbidden food 20.6 0.23 13.3 0.15 0.094 11.6 0.12 14.8 0.15 0.365 27.4 0.27 54.8 0.48 <0.001
Eating soil 53.9 0.65 41.7 0.45 0.006 60.0 0.60 52.4 0.52 0.136 36.9 0.37 48.6 0.49 0.023
Eating unprotected/spoiled food 92.8 1.89 96.7 1.99 0.100 95.3 1.75 91.0 1.74 0.432 95.5 1.60 94.4 1.27 <0.001
Flies 93.3 1.37 97.2 1.52 0.236 96.3 1.35 95.8 1.25 0.004 99.4 1.62 94.4 1.58 0.163
God’s will 40.0 0.56 42.2 0.55 0.668 8.9 0.09 7.4 0.07 0.586 93.3 1.22 86.4 1.83 0.001
Malaria 26.1 0.30 20.0 0.21 0.115 19.5 0.21 24.9 0.25 0.243 15.1 0.15 48.0 0.49 <0.001
Witchcraft 47.8 0.64 69.4 0.86 <0.001 9.5 0.09 11.6 0.12 0.494 20.7 0.21 45.8 0.50 <0.001
Worms 36.1 0.39 36.7 0.39 0.976 23.2 0.24 39.7 0.40 0.001 13.4 0.13 46.9 0.47 <0.001
Cannot say 4.4 0.11 3.9 0.14 0.638 2.1 0.42 11.6 0.77 0.005 1.1 0.02 13.6 0.27 <0.001
Gender comparison Female Male P value Female Male P value Female Male P value
Total reported Prominence Total reported Prominence Total reported Prominence Total reported Prominence Total reported Prominence Total reported Prominence
Dirty environment 92.3 1.77 94.4 1.89 0.251 96.9 1.84 95.7 2.10 0.043 97.8 2.91 97.7 3.07 0.334
Eating soil 51.9 0.61 43.6 0.49 0.092 45.4 0.45 67.6 0.68 <0.001 43.6 0.44 41.8 0.42 0.772
Cannot say 5.0 0.15 3.4 0.10 0.620 7.7 0.65 5.9 0.54 0.476 11.2 0.22 3.4 0.07 0.005

Categories ordered alphabetically, except for ‘cannot say’. ‘Total reported’ = percentage of categories reported spontaneously and upon probing. ‘Prominence’ = mean prominence of categories based on how reported (spontaneous = 2, probed = 1, most important = 3). ‘Overall’: figures in bold designate top three prominent categories; comparison between settings based on the Kruskal-Wallis test, *P <0.05, ***P <0.001. ‘Site comparison’ and ‘Gender comparison’: figures in bold designate significant differences at P <0.05 based on the Wilcoxon test. Data for Southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (SE-DRC) in ‘Overall’ section from Merten et al. [31]. Data for western Kenya in ‘Site comparison’ section from Nyambedha et al. [28]. Data for Zanzibar in ‘Site comparison’ section from Schaetti et al. [27].

aNot elicited in Zanzibar.

Schaetti et al.

Schaetti et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:206   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-206

Open Data