Table 3

Risks of depression according to weekly wine consumption
Wine: drinks/week Abstainers <1 1 to<2 2 to 7 >7
Baseline wine consumptiona
Cases/Person-years 195/7,777 44/2,461 28/1,708 57/3,183 32/6,828
Age and sex-adjusted model 1 (Ref.) 1.05 (0.78 to 1.42) 0.82 (0.55 to 1.22) 0.75 (0.54 to 1.05) 0.79 (0.60 to 1.04)
Multiple-adjusted modelc 1 (Ref.) 1.00 (0.72 to 1.39) 0.93 (0.61 to 1.43) 0.70 (0.48 to 1.00) 0.78 (0.57 to 1.06)
Multiple-adjusted modeld 1 (Ref.) 0.99 (0.71 to 1.37) 0.92 (0.60 to 1.41) 0.68 (0.47 to 0.98) 0.76 (0.56 to 1.04)
Updated wine consumptionb
Age-adjusted model 1 (Ref.) 0.64 (0.46 to 0.89) 0.86 (0.58 to 1.27) 0.59 (0.43 to 0.82) 0.70 (0.48 to 1.02)
Multiple-adjusted modelc 1 (Ref.) 0.64 (0.46 to 0.89) 0.87 (0.58 to 1.29) 0.57 (0.41 to 0.80) 0.68 (0.46 to 1.01)
Multiple-adjusted modeld 1 (Ref.) 0.63 (0.46 to 0.89) 0.86 (0.58 to 1.28) 0.57 (0.40 to 0.79) 0.66 (0.45 to 0.99)
Baseline wine consumption (Only wine-drinkers)a
Cases/Person-years 195/7,777 40/1,454 13/752 25/1,363 26/2,236
Age-adjusted model 1 (Ref.) 1.13 (0.80 to 1.59) 0.79 (0.45 to 1.38) 0.86 (0.56 to 1.30) 0.59 (0.39 to 0.90)
Multiple-adjusted modelc 1 (Ref.) 1.18 (0.81 to 1.72) 0.91 (0.49 to 1.69) 0.81 (0.50 to 1.30) 0.55 (0.35 to 0.87)
Updated wine consumption (Only wine-drinkers)b
Age-adjusted model 1 (Ref.) 0.54 (0.34 to 0.87) 0.93 (0.52 to 1.66) 0.58 (0.36 to 0.92) 0.52 (0.24 to 1.14)
Multiple-adjusted modelc 1 (Ref.) 0.55 (0.34 to 0.87) 0.93 (0.52 to 1.66) 0.57 (0.36 to 0.92) 0.52 (0.23 to 1.18)

aHazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for incident depression according to categories of baseline daily alcohol intake.

bRelative risks (95% confidence intervals) for categories of updated alcohol intake, using repeated measurements of diet during follow-up. To avoid reverse causality bias, an induction period of at least one year, but no longer than two years was assumed. We considered as incident cases of depression those occurring only during the second year of every two-year follow-up interval.

cAdjusted for age, smoking, physical activity (MET-min/d), total energy intake (Kcal/day), baseline body mass index (kg/m2), marital status, intervention group, recruiting center, educational level and the number of persons living at home.

dAdding alcohol from sources other than wine to the previous multiple-adjusted model.

The PREDIMED Study 2003 to 2010.

Gea et al.

Gea et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:192   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-192

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