Table 2

Risks of depression according to categories of daily alcohol intake
Alcohol intake categories (g/day) 0 >0 to 5 >5 to 15 >15 P for liner trend
Baseline alcohol intakea
Cases/Person-years 195/7,777 114/5,728 79/5,390 55/4,760
Crude model 1 (Ref.) 0.79 (0.63 to 1.00) 0.59 (0.46 to 0.77) 0.44 (0.33 to 0.60) <0.001
Age and sex-adjusted 1 (Ref.) 0.91 (0.72 to 1.15) 0.81 (0.62 to 1.07) 0.81 (0.58 to 1.14) 0.347
Multiple-adjusted modelc 1 (Ref.) 0.97 (0.75 to 1.25) 0.72 (0.53 to 0.98) 0.79 (0.53 to 1.16) 0.522
Updated alcohol intakeb
Crude model 1 (Ref.) 0.63 (0.49 to 0.81) 0.49 (0.37 to 0.66) 0.37 (0.26 to 0.52) <0.001
Age and sex-adjusted 1 (Ref.) 0.73 (0.56 to 0.94) 0.71 (0.52 to 0.97) 0.71 (0.48 to 1.05) 0.727
Multiple-adjusted modelc 1 (Ref.) 0.73 (0.57 to 0.95) 0.69 (0.50 to 0.96) 0.69 (0.46 to 1.04) 0.773

aHazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for incident depression according to categories of baseline daily alcohol intake.

bRelative risks (95% confidence intervals) for categories of updated alcohol intake, using repeated measurements of diet during follow-up. To avoid reverse causality bias, an induction period of at least one year, but no longer than two years was assumed. We considered as incident cases of depression those occurring only during the second year of every two-year follow-up interval.

cAdjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical activity (MET-min/d), total energy intake (Kcal/day), baseline body mass index (kg/m2), marital status, intervention group, recruiting center, educational level and the number of persons living at home.

The PREDIMED Study 2003 to 2010.

Gea et al.

Gea et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:192   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-192

Open Data