Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study participants by frequency of nut consumption
Variable Baseline frequency of nut consumption
Never (n = 2,118) 1 to 3 servings/week (n = 2,803) >3 servings/week (n = 2,295) P value
Age, years 67 ± 6 66 ± 6 67 ± 6 <0.001
Men, % (n) 36 (773) 43 (1,219) 47 (1,079) <0.001
BMI, kg/m2 30.6 ± 4.0 29.9 ± 3.7 29.4 ± 3.7 <0.001
Weight, kg 77.2 ± 12.0 77.1 ± 12.1 75.8 ± 11.6 <0.001
Waist circumference, cm 101.5 ± 10.5 100.7 ± 10.4 99.2 ± 10.0 <0.001
Leisure-time energy expenditure in physical activity, MET-min/day 195 ± 220 231 ± 232 264 ± 257 <0.001
Smoking status, % (n) <0.001
 Never 64 (1,367) 61 (1,708) 59 (1,364)
 Current 14 (310) 14 (402) 12 (292)
 Former 21 (441) 24 (693) 28 (639)
Educational level, % (n) <0.001
 Illiterate/primary education 82 (1,740) 76 (2,131) 75 (1,733)
 Secondary education 12 (266) 16 (451) 16 (379)
 Academic/graduate 5 (112) 8 (221) 8 (183)
Diabetes, % (n) 53 (1,118) 47 (1,338) 46 (1,071) <0.001
Hypertension, % (n) 83 (1,763) 83 (2,320) 82 (1,887) 0.670
Hypercholesterolemia, % (n) 70 (1,479) 73 (2,044) 73 (1,689) 0.012
Medication use, % (n)
 Oral antidiabetic drugs 36 (760) 31 (884) 29 (679) <0.001
 Antihypertensive drugs 75 (1,587) 72 (2,037) 71 (1,624) 0.008
 Statins 48 (1,022) 48 (1,364) 47 (1,093) 0.761
Modified MedDiet score (13-point score) 8.1 ± 1.7 8.2 ± 1.8 8.6 ± 1.7 <0.001
Total energy intake, g/day 2,060 ± 529 2,222 ± 514 2,416 ± 537 <0.001
Nuts, g/day 0 4.9 ± 2.3 25.7 ± 14.4 <0.001
Alcohol, g/day 6.6 ± 13.4 8.4 ± 13.8 9.7 ± 14.7 <0.001
Vegetables, g/day 317 ± 144 329 ± 145 355 ± 149 <0.001
Fruit, g/day 344 ± 200 354 ± 195 407 ± 204 <0.001
Red meat (beef, pork, lamb), g/day 70.4 ± 44.3 79.1 ± 46.1 78.6 ± 46.2 <0.001
White meat (chicken, rabbit, turkey), g/day 44.6 ± 28.5 45.1 ± 27.1 44.5 ± 27.6 0.720
Eggs, g/day 19.4 ± 10.9 20.4 ± 11.5 20.0 ± 10.6 0.010
Fish, g/day 91.8 ± 47.8 99.9 ± 48.9 105.2 ± 53.7 <0.001
Dairy products, g/day 387 ± 224 374 ± 216 381 ± 222 0.095

Data are expressed as mean ± SD or percentage (n). P value for comparisons across servings of nut consumption (Pearson χ2 test for categorical variables or one-way analysis of variance for continuous variable) as appropriate.

BMI, body mass index.

Guasch-Ferré et al.

Guasch-Ferré et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:164   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-164

Open Data