Adjusted hazard ratios of total mortality by frequency of nut consumption and intervention group. The Cox regression models were adjusted for age in years, sex, BMI in kg/m2, smoking status (never, former, current smoker), educational level (illiterate/primary education, secondary education, academic/graduate), leisure time physical activity in MET-min/day, history of diabetes (yes/no), history of hypercholesterolemia (yes/no), use of oral antidiabetic medication (yes/no), use of antihypertensive medication (yes/no), use of statins (yes/no), total energy intake (kcal/d), dietary variables in quintiles (vegetables, fruits, red meat, eggs and fish), alcohol intake (continuous, adding a quadratic term), and Mediterranean diet adherence (13-point score). The model was stratified by recruitment centre. Extremes of total energy intake were excluded. Values for the two upper categories of nut consumption are 0.38 (95% CI: 0.23 to 0.63) and 0.37 (95% CI: 0.22 to 0.66) in the Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts (MedDiet + NUTS) group; 0.79 (95% CI: 0.50 to 1.24) and 0.63 (95% CI: 0.36 to 1.1) in the Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil (MedDiet + EVOO) group; and 1.04 (95% CI: 0.64 to 1.69) and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.48 to 1.44) in the low-fat control diet group. P for the interaction between baseline nut consumption and intervention group= 0.019. P for trend: MedDiet + NUTS, p=0.01; MedDiet + EVOO, p=0.15; Control diet, p=0.42.
Guasch-Ferré et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:164 doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-164