Figure 1.

Examples of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency venous hemodynamic criteria on Doppler sonography. (A) Flap anomalies noted in internal jugular vein (IJV) lumen; (B) annulus in the left IJV: circumferential thickened vein wall that is restricting the vein from fully expanding with respiratory or positional changes; (C) thrombus noted in IJV; (D) severe stenosis of left IJV: CSA measurement of ≤3 mm2; (E and F) Reflux/bidirectional flow directed towards the brain for a duration of >0.88 seconds in the right IJV in the supine position (E demonstrates reflux using color flow, while F demonstrates reflux using spectral analysis - waveform noted above baseline for more than 0.88 seconds).

Dolic et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:155   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-155
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