Table 1

Antigenic characterization of viral strains
Author (year) Vaccine type Vaccine composition Type of laboratory-confirmed influenza used in the analysis Circulating strains Antigenic characterization as per author Classification of laboratory-confirmed influenza viral strains as being matched Classification of laboratory-confirmed influenza viral strains as being mismatched
Leibovitz (1971) [24] Other (MIV) A/Hong Kong/Aichi/68 (H3N2) Culture A/Hong Kong/Aichi/68 (H3N2) Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) to A/Hong Kong/Aichi/68, B/Massachusetts/66 A/Hong Kong/Aichi/68 (H3N2) NA
Beutner (1979) [25] Other (MIV) A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2) HI assay (secondary analysis) A/Port Chalmers, A/Victoria strains Typed by HI (cut-off: eightfold rise) to A/Port Chalmers and A/Victoria A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2) A/Victoria (H3N2, classified as antigenic drift)
Rytel (1977) [26] Other (bivalent attenuated vaccine) A/England/42/72 (H3N2), B/Hong Kong/5/72 Culture A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2) Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) to A/Hong Kong/8/66, A/England/42/72, A/Port Chalmers/1/73 NA A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2) (reported as antigenic drift)
Monto (1982) [27] Other (bivalent attenuated vaccine) B/Ann Arbor/1/66, B/Hong Kong/8/73 HI assay (secondary analysis) B/Singapore/79, B/Buenos Aires/79-like Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) to B/Hong Kong (supplied by CDC) B/Tecumseh NA B/Singapore/79-like, B/Buenos Aires/79-like (reported as antigenic drift)
Tannock (1984) [28] TIV A/Brazil/11/78 (H1N1), A/Bangkok/I/79 (H3N2), B/Singapore/222/79 HI assay (secondary analysis) A/H3N2 and influenza B strains were circulating (unspecified) Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) to A/Bangkok/1/79 A/Bangkok/1/79 (H3N2) NA
Keitel (1997) Y1a[29]; Keitel (1988) [52] Other (WV) A/Brazil/11/78 (H1N1), A/Philippines/2/82 (H3N2), B/Singapore/222/79 Culture A/Victoria/7/83 (H1N1), B/USSR/100/83 Antigenic characterization not actively performed; based on predominant epidemic viruses NA A/Victoria/7/83 (H1N1) B/USSR/100/83 (classified as antigenic drift)
Keitel (1997) Y2a[29]; Keitel (1988) [52] Other (WV) A/Chile/1/83 (H1N1), A/Philippine/2/82 (H3N2), B/USSR/100/83 Culture A/Philippines/2/82 (H3N2) Antigenic characterization not actively performed; based on predominant epidemic viruses A/Philippines/2/82 (H3N2) NA
Keitel (1997) Y3a[29]; Keitel (1988) [52] Other (WV) A/Chile/1/83 (H1N1), A/Philippine/2/82 (H3N2), B/USSR/100/83 Culture A/Mississippi/1/85 (H3N2), B/Ann Arbor/1/86 Antigenic characterization not actively performed; based on predominant epidemic viruses NA B/Ann Arbor/1/86 (classified as antigenic drift)
Keitel (1997) Y4a[29]; Keitel (1988) [52] Other (WV) A/Chile/1/83 (H1N1), A/Mississippi/1/85 (H3N2), B/Ann Arbor/1/86 (Victoria) plus A/Taiwan/1/86 (H1N1, monovalent supplement) Culture A/Taiwan/1/86 (H1N1) Antigenic characterization not actively performed; based on predominant epidemic viruses A/Taiwan/1/86 (H1N1) NA
Keitel (1997) Y5a[29]; Keitel (1988) [52] Other (WV) A/Leningrad/360/86 (H3N2), A/Taiwan/1/86 (H1N1), B/Ann Arbor/1/86 (Victoria) Culture A/Sichuan/1/87 (H3N2)B/Victoria/2/87 (Victoria) Antigenic characterization not actively performed; based on predominant epidemic viruses NA A/Sichuan/1/87 (H3N2), B/Victoria/2/87 (classified as antigenic drift
Gruber (1990) [30] TIV A/Chile/1/83 (H1N1), A/Philippines/2/82 (H3N2), B/USSR/100/83 (lineage unknown) Culture or HI assay (secondary analysis) B/Ann Arbor/1/86 (Victoria) Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) to A/Chile, A/Philippines, A/Dunedin, A/Panama B/Ann Arbor, B/USSR NA B/Ann Arbor/1/86 (reported as antigenic drift)
Edwards (1994) Y1 [31] LAIV, TIV LAIV: A/Texas/1/85 (H1N1), A/Bethesda/1/85 (H3N2); TIV: A/Chile/1/83 (H1N1), A/Mississippi/1/85 (H3N2), B/Ann Arbor/1/86 Culture A/Taiwan/1/86 (H1N1) Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) by to the circulating strains and strains in the vaccine (supplied by CDC) NA A/Taiwan/1/86 (H1N1) (reported as antigenic drift)
Edwards (1994) Y2 [31] LAIV, TIV LAIV: A/Kawasaki/9/86 (H1N1), A/Bethesda/1/85 (H3N2); TIV: A/Taiwan/1/86 (H1N1), A/Leningrad/360/86 (H3N2), B/Ann Arbor/1/86 Culture A/Sichuan/2/87 (H3N2), B/Victoria/2/87 (Victoria) Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) by to the circulating strains and strains in the vaccine (supplied by CDC) NA A/Sichuan/2/87 (H3N2) (reported as antigenic drift)
Edwards (1994) Y3 [31] LAIV, TIV LAIV: A/Kawasaki/9/86 (H1N1), A/Los Angeles/2/87 (H3N2); other: A/Taiwan/1/86 (H1N1), A/Sichuan/2/87 (H3N2), B/Beijing/1/87 Culture A/Taiwan/1/86 (H1N1), B/Yamagata/16/88 (Yamagata) Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) by to the circulating strains and strains in the vaccine (supplied by CDC) A/Taiwan/1/86 (H1N1) NA
Edwards (1994) Y4 [31] LAIV, TIV LAIV: A/Kawasaki/9/86 (H1N1), A/Los Angeles/2/87 (H3N2); TIV: A/Taiwan/1/86 (H1N1), A/Shanghai/11/87 (H3N2), B/Yamagata/16/88 Culture A/Shanghai/11/87 (H3N2) Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) by to the circulating strains and strains in the vaccine (supplied by CDC) A/Shanghai/11/87 (H3N2) NA
Clover (1991) [32] TIV, Other (Bivalent CR) TIV: A/Chile/83 (H1N1), A/Mississippi/85 (H3N2), B/Ann Arbor/8 (Victoria); bivalent CR: A/Texas/1/85 (H1N1), A/Bethesda/1/85 (H3N2) Viral culture or HI assay (secondary analysis) A/Taiwan/1/86 (H1N1) closely related to A/Singapore/6/86 (H1N1), A/Chile/1/83 (H1N1) Typed by HI (cut-off: eightfold rise or two ≥fourfold rises) to A/Chile and A/Taiwan NA A/Taiwan/1/86-like (H1N1)
Govaert (1994) [33] Other (purified split viron vaccine) A/Singapore/6/86 (H1N1), A/Beijing/353/89 (H3N2), B/Beijing/1/87 (Victoria), B/Panama/45/90 (Yamagata) HI assay (secondary analysis) A/Beijing/353/89 (H3N2), A/Singapore/6/86 (H1N1), B/Beijing/1/87 (Victoria), B/Panama/45/90 (Yamagata) Antigenic characterization not actively performed; based on predominant epidemic viruses A/Beijing/353/89 (H3N2) NA
Powers (1995) [34] TIV A/Texas/36/91 (H1N1), A/Beijing/32/92 (H3N2), B/Panama/45/90 (Yamagata) Culture or HI assay (secondary analysis) A/Beijing/32/92 (H3N2) Type by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) to A/Beijing (supplied by CDC) A/Beijing/32/92 (H3N2) NA
Belshe (1998) [35] LAIV A/Texas/36/91-like (H1N1), A/Wuhan/359/95-like (H3N2), B/Harbin/7/94-like (Yamagata) Culture Influenza A (H3N2), influenza B. The isolation of influenza A or B among the study population paralleled that in the community in general. Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) to A/Texas, A/Wuhan, B/Harbin A/Wuhan/359/95-like (H3N2), B/Harbin/7/94-like (Yamagata) NA
Rudenko (2001) [36] LAIV, TIV LAIV: A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (H3N2) or A/Texas/36/91(H1N1), A/Nanchang/933/95 (H3N2), B/Harbin/07/94 (Yamagata), B/Ann Arbor/1/86 (Victoria); TIV: A/Texas/36/91 (H1N1), A/Nanchang/933/95 (H3N2), B/Harbin/07/94 (Yamagata) Culture or HI assay (secondary analysis) Viral isolates similar to A/Texas/36/91 (H1N1), or B/Harbin/07/94 Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) to vaccine strains A/Texas/36/91 (H1N1), B/Harbin/07/94 (Yamagata) NA
Belshe (2000) [37] LAIV A/Shenzhen/227/95-like (H1N1), A/Wuhan/359/95 (H3N2), B/Harbin/7/94-like Culture A/Sydney/5/97-like; A/Wuhan/359/95-like and Influenza B Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) to A/Nanchang (similar to A/Wuhan) and A/Sydney A/Wuhan/359/95-like (H3N2) A/Sydney/5/97-like (H3N2) (reported as antigenic drift)
Bridges (2000) Y1 [38] TIV A/Johannesburg/82/96 (H1N1), A/Nanchang/933/95 (H3N2), B/Harbin/7/94 (Yamagata) Culture or HI assay (secondary analysis) A/Sydney/5/97-like (H3N2), A/Michigan/8/98 (H3N2) Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) to A/Johannesburg, A/Nanchang, B/Harbin, A/Sydney, A/Michigan (supplied by CDC) A/Sydney/5/97-like (H3N2) (reported as antigenic drift)
Bridges (2000) Y2 [38] TIV A/Beijing/262/95 (H1N1), A/Sydney/5/97 (H3N2), and B/Harbin/7/94 (Yamagata) Culture or HI assay (secondary analysis) A/Sydney/5/97-like (H3N2), B/Beijing/184/93-like (Yamagata) Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) to A/Johannesburg, A/Nanchang, B/Harbin, A/Sydney, A/Michigan (supplied by CDC) A/Sydney/5/97-like (H3N2) B/Beijing/184/93-like (Yamagata) NA
Hoberman (2003) Y1 [39] TIV A/Beijing/262/95 (H1N1), A/Sydney/15/97 (H3N2), and B/Yamanashi/166/98 (Yamagata) Culture A/Beijing/262/95 (H1N1), A/Sydney/15/97 (H3N2) Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) to A/Beijing and A/Sydney A/Beijing/262/95 (H1N1), A/Sydney/15/97 (H3N2) NA
Hoberman (2003) Y2 [39] TIV A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Panama/07/99 (H3N2), and B/Yamanashi/166/98 (Yamagata) Culture A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Panama/07/99 (H3N2) B/Yamanashi/166/98 (Yamagata) Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) to A/New Caledonia, B/Yamanashi, A/Panama A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Panama/07/99 (H3N2), B/Yamanashi/166/98 (Yamagata) NA
Tam (2007) Y1 [40] LAIV A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Sydney/05/97 (H3N2), B/Yamanashi/166/98 (Yamagata) Culture B/Sichuan/379/99 (Yamagata), B/Hong Kong/330/01-like (Victoria) (reported in Belshe review [59]) Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) to A/New Caledonia, A/Sydney, B/Yamanashi (supplied by the CDC) Influenza A strains antigenically similar to vaccine (strains unspecified) B/Sichuan-like (reported as antigenic drift), B/Hong Kong-like (classified as lineage mismatch as per Belshe review [59])
Tam (2007) Y2 [40] LAIV A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2), and B/Yamanashi/166/98 (Yamagata) Culture B/Victoria/504/00 (Victoria lineage) (B/Sichuan/379/99-like) virus (Yamagata) Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) to A/New Caledonia/20/9 A/Sydney/5/97, B/Victoria/2/87 (supplied by CDC) NA B/Sichuan-like (reported as antigenic drift), B/Hong Kong-like (classified as lineage mismatch as per Belshe review [59])
Vesikari (2006) Y1 [41] LAIV A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Sydney/05/97 (H3N2), B/Yamanashi/166/98 (Yamagata) Culture A/New Caledonia/20/99-like (H1N1) A/Panama/07/99-like (H3N2) B/Sichuan/379/99-like (Yamagata) Typed by HI (cut-off NR) to vaccine strains and community acquired strains A/New Caledonia/20/99-like (H1N1), A/Panama/07/99-like (H3N2) Influenza A strains (unspecified; reported as antigenic drift), B/Sichuan-like (classified as antigenic drift as per Belshe review [59]), influenza B strains (unspecified; reported as lineage mismatch)
Vesikari (2006) Y2 [41] LAIV A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Panama/07/99 (H3N2), B/Victoria/504/00 (Yamagata) Culture A/New Caledonia/20/99-like (H1N1), A/Panama/07/99-like (H3N2), B/Hong Kong/330/01-like (Victoria) Typed by HI (cut-off NR) to vaccine strains and community acquired strains A/New Caledonia/20/99-like (H1N1), A/Panama/2007/99-like (H3N2), B/Victoria/504/00-like (Yamagata) B/Hong Kong-like (reported as lineage mismatch)
Forrest (2008) [42] LAIV A/New Caledonia/20/99-like (H1N1), A/Panama strain (H3N2), B/Victoria/504/00 (Yamagata) Culture A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Fujian/411-02-like, B/Hong Kong/330/01-like (Victoria) Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) to vaccine strains and community acquired strains Antigenically similar strains to H3N2 (unspecified) Influenza B strains (unspecified; reported as lineage mismatch)
Bracco Neto (2009) Y1b[10] LAIV A/New Caledonia/20/99 -like (H1N1), A/Moscow/10/99-like (H3N2), B/Sichuan/379/99-like (Yamagata) Culture A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Panama/07/99-like (H3N2), B/Sichuan/379/99-like (Yamagata) Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) to vaccine strains and community acquired strains (unspecified) A/New Caledonia/20/99-like (H1N1), A/Panama/2007/99-like (H3N2), B/Yamanashi/166/98-like (Yamagata), B/Victoria/504/00-like (Yamagata) Influenza A strains (unspecified; reported as antigenic drift), influenza B strains (unspecified; reported as lineage mismatch)
Bracco Neto (2009) Y2b[10] LAIV A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1) A/Moscow/10/99 (H3N2), B/Hong Kong/330/01-like (Victoria) Culture A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Panama/07/99-like (H3N2) B/Hong Kong/330/01-like (Victoria) Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) to vaccine strains and community acquired strains (unspecified) A/New Caledonia/20/99-like, A/Panama/07/99-like, B/Victoria-like (Victoria) B/Hong Kong (reported as lineage mismatch)
Lum (2010) [43] LAIV A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Panama/07/99 (H3N2), B/Hong Kong/330/2001 (Victoria) Culture A/New Caledonia/20/99-like (H1N1), A/Panama/07/99-like (H3N2), A/Fujian/411-02-like (H3N2) in Asian regions, B/Victoria-like (Victoria) Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) and PCR sequencing to A/Fujian/411/02-like, B/Victoria/504/00-like, A/New Caledonia/20/99-like, A/Panama/2007/99-like, B/Hong Kong/1351/02-like (supplied by CDC and Wyeth) A/New Caledonia-like (H1N1), A/Panama-like (H3N2), B/Hong Kong-like (Victoria) A/Fujian-like and B/Victoria-like (Victoria) (report as antigenic drift)
Langley (2011) [44] TIV A/New/Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Panama/07/99 (H3N2) B/Shangdong/7/97 (Victoria) Culture A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1)-like. A/Fujian (H3N2), B/Hong Kong/330/01-like (Victoria), B/Sichuan/379/99-like (Yamagata) Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) (not specified) A/Fujian (reported as antigenic drift accounting for 96.8% of H3N2 isolates)
Ohmit (2006)b[11] LAIV, TIV LAIV: A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Wyoming/03/03-like (H3N2), B/Jilian/20/03-like (Yamagata lineage); TIV: A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Wyoming/3/03 (H3N2), B/Jiangsu/10/03-like (Yamagata lineage) Culture A/California/07/04-like, A/Wisconsin-like (H3N2), B/Hawaii/33/04-like (Victoria lineage) Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) to vaccine strains and A/California/07/04, B/Hawaii/33/04-like (supplied by the CDC) B/Shanghai/361/02-like (Yamagata) A/California/07/04-like (H3N2) (report as antigenic drift), B/Hawaii/33/04-like (report as lineage mismatch)
Treanor (2007)b[12] Other (purified rHAO vaccine) A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Wyoming/3/03 (H3N2), B/Jiangsu/10/03 (Yamagata lineage) Culture A/California/7/04 -like (H3N2), A/Wisconsin-like (H3N2), B/Yamagata/16/88-like (Yamagata) Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) to vaccine and circulating strains (unspecified) (supplied by CDC) NA A/California-like (H3N2, report as antigenic drift), B/Yamagata-like (report as lineage mismatch)
Beran (2009) [45] TIV A/New Caledonia/20/99 IVR-116 virus (H1N1), A/New York/55/04 X-157 (H3N2) B/Jiangsu/10/03 (Yamagata lineage) Culture A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/California,//07/04-like, B/Jiangsu/10/2003-like viruses (Yamagata lineage) Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) to unspecified strains A/California-like (H3N2), A/New Caledonia-like (H1N1), A/Czech Republic-like (H1N1) B/Hong Kong-like, (reported as lineage mismatch)
Jackson (2010) Y1 [15] TIV A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/New York/55/04 (H3N2), B/Jiangsu/10/03 (Yamagata lineage) Culture A/New Caledonia/20/99 A (H1N1), A/California/07/04-like (H3N2), A/Wisconsin-like (H3N2), B/Shanghai/361/02 (Yamagata), B/Florida/07/04-like (lineage unknown) B/Ohio/1/05 (Victoria) Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) to vaccine and circulating strains (unspecified) (supplied by CDC and WHO) Report results for influenza A and B strains (unspecified) with ≤fourfold difference in HI titer compared to vaccine strains Report results for influenza A and B strains (unspecified) with >fourfold difference in HI titer compared to vaccine strains
Jackson (2010) Y2 [15] TIV A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2), B/Malaysia/2506/04 (Victoria lineage) Culture A/New Caledonia/20/99, A (H1N1), A/Solomon Islands/3/06 A (H1N1), A/Wisconsin/67/05 A (H3N2), B/Yamagata/16/88 (Yamagata) B/Ohio/01/05 (Victoria) Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) to vaccine and circulating strains (unspecified) (supplied by CDC and WHO) Report results for influenza A and B strains (unspecified) with ≤fourfold difference in HI titer compared to vaccine strains Report results for influenza A and B strains (unspecified) with >fourfold difference in HI titer compared to vaccine strains
Ohmit (2008)b[13] LAIV, TIV LAIV/TIV: A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/New York/55/04 (H3N2), B/Jiangsu/10/03 (Yamagata) Culture or PCR A/California/07/04-like (H3N2), A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2), B/Shanghai/361/02 (Yamagata), B/Florida/07/04-like (Yamagata), B/Ohio/01/05 (Victoria) Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) to A/Wisconsin/67/05, B/Ohio/01/05, and vaccine strains A/California/07/04 (H3N2) B/Ohio/01/05-like (reported as lineage mismatch)
Beran (2009) [46] TIV A/New Caledonia/20/99 IVR-116 (H1N1), A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2), B/Malaysia/2506/04 (Victoria) Culture A/New Caledonia/20/99, A/Wisconsin/67/05, B/Yamagata-like (Yamagata) Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) to unspecified strains (supplied by CDC and WHO) A/Wisconsin (H3N2) A/H1N1 strains (unspecified; reported as antigenic drift), B/Yamagata-like (reported as lineage mismatch)
Monto (2009)b[14] LAIV, TIV LAIV/TIV: A/Solomon Islands/3/06 (H1N1), A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2), B/Malaysia/2506/04 (Victoria) PCR A/Brisbane/59/07-like (H1N1), A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2) Typed by HI (cut-off: eightfold rise) to vaccine strains and circulating strains (supplied by CDC) A/Wisconsin-like (H3N2) A/Brisbane-like (report as antigenic drift), B/Yamagata-like (reported as lineage mismatch)
Frey (2010) [47] LAIV, TIV LAIV/TIV: A/Solomon Islands/3/06 (H1N1)-like, A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2)-like, B/Malaysia/2506/04-like (Victoria) Culture A/Solomon Islands/3/06 (H1N1) A/Brisbane/59/07-like (H3N2) A/Wisconsin/67/05-like (H3N2), B/Florida/4/06 (Yamagata), B/Ohio/01/05 (Victoria), B/Malaysia/2506/04 (Victoria) Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) to unspecified strains (supplied by CDC) Report results for influenza A (H1N1, H3N2) and B strains (unspecified) with ≤fourfold difference in HI titer compared to vaccine strain Report results for influenza A (H1N1, H3N2) and B strains (unspecified) with >fourfold difference in HI titer compared to vaccine strain
Treanor (2011) [48] Other (FluBlok®) A/Solomon Island/3/06 (H1N1), A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2), B/Malaysia/2506/04 (Victoria) Culture A/Brisbane/59/07 (H1N1), A/Brisbane/10/07 (H3N2), B/Florida/04/06 (Yamagata) Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) to strains (unspecified) A/Wisconsin/67/05-like (H3N2) A/Brisbane/59/07-like (H1N1) (reported as antigenic drift), B/Florida/04/06 (reported as lineage mismatch) (data NR by treatment group)
Barrett (2011) [49] TIV A/Brisbane/59/07 (H1N1), A/Uruguay/716/07, B/Florida/4/06 (Yamagata) Culture or RT-PCR A/Brisbane/59/07 B/Florida/04/06 (Yamagata) B/Victoria/02/87 (Victoria) Typed by HI (lowest titer at which the sum of the specificity and sensitivity was maximum) to strains (unspecified) (supplied by CDC) A/Brisbane/59/07 (H1N1), A/Uruguay/716/07 (H3N2), B/Florida/4/06 Influenza A strains (unspecified), B/Victoria-like (reported as lineage mismatch)
Cowling (2010) [50] TIV A/Brisbane/59/07 (H1N1)-like, A/Brisbane/10/07 (H3N2)-like, and B/Florida/4/06 (Yamagata) RT-PCR A/Perth/16/09-like (H3N2) Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) to A/Brisbane (H1N1), A/Brisbane (H3N2), A/California, A/Perth, H1N1 and B/Florida A/Brisbane (H1N1), A/Brisbane (H3N2), A/California, and B/Florida A/Perth/16/09-like (H3N2) (report as antigenic drift) and pandemic A/H1N1
Talaat (2010) [51] Other (MIV) A/H1N1/2009 RT-PCR H1N1 Typed by HI (cut-off: fourfold rise) to A/H1N1/09 NA A/H1N1 (HIN1)

Circulating strains refers to the influenza viral strains circulating in the specified time and region as reported in the publication. Circulating viral strains were crossreferenced with WHO weekly epidemiological records, Chinese National Influenza Centre CDC influenza summary reports, Mortality and Morbidity Reports Weekly (MMRW, published by CDC), where applicable. In all cases circulating strains matched influenza documentation as noted above. Antigenic characterization as per author refers to how the author determined and classified influenza strains in participants with laboratory-confirmed influenza. Immunogenicity to vaccine and non-vaccine strains conducted using cut-off values to determine match or mismatch between strains contained in the vaccine and those that were circulating. Classification of laboratory-confirmed influenza viral strains as being matched refers to the categorization of influenza strains that are antigenically similar or well matched to vaccine strains. Strains listed in the column represent break through strains that despite being well matched to vaccine caused influenza infections in the study population. In some cases, antigenically similar or well matched strains were presented in the study and are listed in the table as ‘reported’. In other cases, antigenically similar or well matched strains was determined by surveillance data as documented above, in these cases the strains are listed as ‘classified as’. Classification of laboratory-confirmed influenza viral strains as being mismatched refers to the categorization of influenza strains that are antigenically distinct or mismatched to vaccine strains. Strains listed in the column represent break through strains that were not protected through vaccination. In some cases, antigenically distinct or mismatched strains were presented in the study by authors and are listed in the table as ‘reported’. In other cases, antigenically distinct or mismatched strains was determined by subtracting well matched strains from any strains reported in the publications, these strains are listed as ‘classified as’ by authors of this review. Influenza B mismatched strains are further classified as antigenic drifts or lineage drifts. Antigenic drift represents viral strains that have mutated but are still classified within the same lineage. Lineage drifts refer to the distinction between Yamagata and Victoria lineages of influenza B. Classification of lineage was either reported by author (denoted in table as ‘reported’) or categorized based on phylogenic tree of lineages (denoted as ‘classified’).

aMain publication.

bUnpublished data was obtained from the author.

CDC Center for Disease Control and Prevention, HI haemagglutinin inhibition, LAIV live attenuated influenza vaccine, MIV monovalent inactivated vaccine, NA not applicable, NR not reported, RT-PCR reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, TIV trivalent influenza vaccine, WHO World Health Organization, WV whole viral vaccine.

Tricco et al.

Tricco et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:153   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-153

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