Table 4

Odds ratios for antidepressant medications and Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalized adults
Unadjusted Adjusteda
Medications Using medication, n OR 95% CI P value OR 95% CI P value
Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic anti-depressants
 Mirtazapine
  Use (versus no use) 99 2.11 1.29 to 3.45 0.003 2.14 1.30 to 3.52 0.003
  Doses given, n 1.08 1.01 to 1.16 0.018 1.08 1.01 to 1.16 0.020
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
 Fluoxetine
  Use (versus no use) 99 1.98 1.20 to 3.26 0.008 1.92 1.16 to 3.17 0.012
  Doses given, n 1.06 1.00 to 1.12 0.036 1.06 1.00 to 1.12 0.046
 Escitalopram
  Use (versus no use) 80 0.97 0.48 to 1.95 0.929 0.98 0.48 to 1.97 0.945
  Doses given, n 1.04 0.98 to 1.10 0.191 1.04 0.98 to 1.09 0.234
 Citalopram
  Use (versus no use) 310 0.90 0.62 to 1.32 0.599 0.90 0.62 to 1.31 0.569
  Doses given, n 0.99 0.94 to 1.04 0.620 0.98 0.94 to 1.04 0.566
 Sertraline
  Use (versus no use) 207 0.90 0.58 to 1.42 0.666 0.88 0.56 to 1.39 0.583
  Doses given, n 0.98 0.93 to 1.04 0.486 0.98 0.92 to 1.04 0.461
 Paroxetine
  Use (versus no use) 78 0.87 0.42 to 1.82 0.716 0.86 0.41 to 1.80 0.692
  Doses given, n 0.98 0.88 to 1.09 0.693 0.98 0.88 to 1.09 0.680
Tricyclic anti-depressants
 Nortriptyline
  Use (versus no use) 49 1.98 0.98 to 4.00 0.056 1.96 0.97 to 3.97 0.062
  Doses given, n 1.11 1.02 to 1.20 0.015 1.11 1.02 to 1.20 0.017
 Amitriptyline
  Use (versus no use) 63 1.45 0.73 to 2.88 0.284 1.43 0.72 to 2.84 0.307
  Doses given, n 1.04 0.96 to 1.14 0.337 1.04 0.96 to 1.14 0.343
Serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitors
 Trazodone
  Use (versus no use) 405 1.23 0.91 to 1.66 0.182 1.21 0.90 to 1.65 0.211
  Doses given, n 1.04 0.98 to 1.10 0.184 1.04 0.98 to 1.10 0.197
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors
 Duloxetine
  Use (versus no use) 82 1.19 0.63 to 2.26 0.597 1.15 0.60 to 2.19 0.681
  Doses given, n 1.01 0.94 to 1.09 0.690 1.01 0.94 to 1.09 0.788
 Venlafaxine
  Use (versus no use) 58 0.72 0.29 to 1.81 0.482 0.71 0.28 to 1.78 0.464
  Doses given, n 1.05 0.95 to 1.16 0.367 1.05 0.94 to 1.16 0.401
Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors
 Bupropion
  Use (versus no use) 97 1.08 0.59 to 2.00 0.801 1.02 0.55 to 1.89 0.948
  Doses given, n 0.95 0.85 to 1.06 0.357 0.94 0.85 to 1.05 0.306

a. Adjusted for age, gender, race, antibacterial medications, PPIs, H2RAs, statins, irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease, Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis.

Rogers et al.

Rogers et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:121   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-121

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