Table 2

Biomarkers.

Biomarker

Units

Analysis

Clinical application


Protein

mg/ml

Bradford Assay

Kidney disease

Creatinine

µmol/L

Daytona RX Series Clinical Analyzer (Randox)

Kidney disease

Osmolality

mOsm

Löser Micro-Osmometer (Type 15) (Löser Messtechnik, Germany)

Kidney disease

Bladder tumor antigen (BTA)

U/ml

ELISA (Polymedco)

UC diagnosis

Carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) (serum)

ng/ml

BAT

Monitoring colorectal cancer

Cytokeratin 18 (CK18)

ng/ml

ELISA (USCNLIFE Science & Technology Co. Ltd)

N/A

C-reactive protein (CRP)

ng/ml

BAT

Acute inflammation/infection

D-dimer

ng/ml

BAT

Pulmonary embolus

Epidermal growth factor (EGF)

pg/ml

ELISA (in house)

UC prognosis

FAS

pg/ml

ELISA (Raybio, Inc)

N/A

Hyaluronidase (HA)

ng/ml

ELISA (Echelon Biosciences Inc)

N/A

Interleukin-1α (IL-1 α)

pg/ml

BAT

N/A

Interleukin-1β (IL-1 β)

pg/ml

BAT

N/A

Interleukin-2 (IL-2)

pg/ml

BAT

N/A

Interleukin-4 (IL-4)

pg/ml

BAT

N/A

Interleukin-6 (IL-6)

pg/m

BAT

N/A

InterleukinL-8 (IL-8)

pg/ml

BAT

N/A

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)

pg/ml

BAT

N/A

Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9)

ng/ml

BAT

N/A

MMP-9NGAL complex

N/A

ELISA (in house)

N/A

Neutrophil-associated gelatinase lipocalin (NGAL)

ng/ml

BAT

Kidney disease

Neuron specific enolase (NSE)

ng/ml

BAT

Free prostate specific antigen (FPSA) (serum)

ng/ml

BAT

Prostate cancer

Thrombomodulin (TM)

ng/ml

BAT

N/A

Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)

pg/ml

BAT

N/A

Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNFR1)

ng/ml

BAT

N/A

Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNFR2)

ng/ml

BAT

N/A

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)

pg/ml

BAT

angiogenesis

Von Willeband factor (vWF)

IU/ml

BAT

N/A


Biomarkers were measured in triplicate except for those marked ‡ for which only a single analysis was undertaken. Twenty of the 29 biomarkers were measured using Biochip Array Technology (BAT) which facilitates the simultaneous analyses of multiple proteins [17]. ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; UC urothelial cancer.

Emmert-Streib et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:12   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-12

Open Data