Hierarchial clustering of the 29 biomarkers. This dendrogram illustrates seven distinct biomarker clusters containing (from left to right): 2 (black), 2 (green), 6 (purple), 5 (gold), 4 (pink), 3 (blue) and 7 (yellow) biomarkers each. Two of the biomarker clusters comprised predominantly inflammatory proteins. For example, the brown cluster comprised D-dimer, interleukin-1α (IL-1α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), neutrophil-associated gelatinase lipocalin (NGAL) and total protein. BTA, bladder tumor antigen; CEA, carcino-embryonic antigen; CK18, cytokeratin 18; CRP, C-reactive protein; EGF, epidermal growth factor; FPSA, free prostate specific antigen; HA, hyaluronidase; MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; MMP-9, matrix metalloproteinase 9; NSE, neuron specific enolase; sTNFR1, soluble TNF receptor 1; TM, thrombomodulin; TNFα, tumor necrosis factor α; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; vWF, von Willeband factor.
Emmert-Streib et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:12 doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-12