Table 2

Participants` characteristics
Participants (total) N = 1,145 (= 100%)
Gender
Male 797 (69.7%)
Female 346 (30.3%)
Age
Years (Mean ± SD) 24 to 85 years (43.30 ± 10.67)
Family status:
Married 875 (76.5%)
Divorced 67 (5.9%)
Single 189 (16.5%)
Widowed 13 (1.1%)
Children:
Participants living with children 525 (48.0%)
Participants living without children 568 (52.0%)
Type of employer:
University 315 (27.7%)
Hospital (other than University hospital) 636 (56.0%)
Doctor´s office/ Doctor´s surgery 159 (14.0%)
Other (for example, industry) 26 (2.3%)
Employment status:
Surgeons in training (1st to 5th year) 646 (56.4%)
Senior surgeons 246 (21.5%)
Directors/deputy directors 253 (22.1%)
Hours of work (per week)
Hours (Mean ± SD) 13 to 100 (56.77 ± 12.97)
Gross income:
<40,000 € 64 (5.7%)
40,000 to 100.000 € 544 (48.6%)
100,000 to 150.000 € 298 (26.6%)
150,000 to200.000 € 102 (9.1%)
>200,000 € 111 (9.9%)
Satisfied with professional success
Yes 975 (87.8%)
No 136 (12.2%)
Subjective evaluation of career opportunities
Mean ± SD: 2.49 ± 0.94
1 = 126 (11.5%)
2 = 488 (44.7%)
3 = 342 (31.3%)
4 = 91 (8.3%)
5 = 44 (4.0%)
Pressure to perform on the job
Mean ± SD: 3.32 ± 1.18
0 = 32 (2.8%)
1 = 67 (5.9%)
2 = 131 (11.5%)
3 = 318 (27.9%)
4 = 452 (39.7%)
5 = 138 (12.1%)
Pressure to perform in private life
Mean ± SD: 2.01 ± 1.26
0 = 140 (12.4%)
1 = 267 (23.7%)
2 = 329 (29.2%)
3 = 246 (21.9%)
4 = 118 (10.5%)
5 = 251 (2.2%)
Pressure to perform subjectively evaluated as burdensome
Mean ± SD: 2.57 ± 1.28
0 = 62 (5.5%)
1 = 196 (17.3%)
2 = 260 (22.9%)
3 = 323 (28.4%)
4 = 238 (21.0%)
5 = 57 (5.0%)
Pressure to perform subjectively evaluated as harmful to health
Mean ± SD: 2.72 ± 1.34
0 = 71 (6.3%)
1 = 158 (14.0%)
2 = 233 (20.6%)
3 = 299 (26.4%)
4 = 292 (25.8%)
5 = 78 (6.9%)

Use of 6-point Likert scale, 0 = not at all, 5 = very much in respect of the following items: Subjective evaluation of career opportunities; Pressure to perform; Subjective pressure to perform. Means are given with standard deviation (SD).

Prevalence rates of cognitive enhancement (CE) and mood enhancement (ME) measured by anonymous questionnaires (AQ).

Franke et al.

Franke et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:102   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-102

Open Data