|Specific mechanisms relating to the adjuvant properties of aluminum compounds|
|Depot effect||Alum-induced consolidation of the desired antigen at the injection site results in slow release of the antigen to antigen-presenting cells for an extended period of time|
|Activation of DCs by lipid sorting||Aluminum salts induce activation of DCs and complement components, and increase the level of chemokine secretion in the injection site. Aluminum-based salts firmly bind to and alter the structure of lipids in the plasma membrane of DCs|
|NLRP3 inflammasome-independent DC activation||Membrane proximal events unrelated to the NLRP3 inflammasome are sufficient to mediate DC activation in response to alum|
|Augmentation of adjuvant properties of alum by uric acid||Increase in uric acid mediates upregulation of MHC class II in monocytes via an IL-4 dependent mechanism|
|Host cell DNA||The host cell DNA can enhance the adjuvant properties of alum|
|Alum-dependent increase in IgE levels||Promotes allergy|
|Amyloid plaque formation||Alum promotes the formation of amyloid plaques by catalyzingpolymerization of β-amyloid|
|Increased Tau protein||Alum may increase the levels of Tau protein|
Abbreviations: DC, dendritic cell; IL, interleukin; MHC, major histocompatibility complex; NLRP3, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3.
Perricone et al.
Perricone et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:101 doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-101