Table 1

Treatment options for viral hemorrhagic fevers

Virus

Family

Incubation

Virulence

Communicability

Isolation

Treatment option(s)


Ebola

Filoviridae

2 to 21 days

High

Yes

Yes

Post-exposure vaccination (rVSV); rNAPc2; siRNA

Marburg

Filoviridae

2 to 21 days

High

Yes

Yes

Post-exposure vaccination (rVSV)

Lassa

Arenaviridae

6 to 21 days

Moderate

Yes

Yes

Ribavirin

Lujo

Arenaviridae

6 to 21 days

High

Yes

Yes

Ribavirin

Junin

Arenaviridae

6 to 21 days

Moderate

Yes

Yes

Passive immune therapy

Machupo

Arenaviridae

6 to 21 days

Moderate

Yes

Yes

Passive immune therapy

Sabia

Arenaviridae

6 to 21 days

Moderate

Unknown

Yes

Guanarito

Arenaviridae

6 to 21 days

Moderate

Unknown

Yes

Chapare

Arenaviridae

6 to 21 days

Unknown

Unknown

Yes

Nipah

Paramyxoviridae

4 to 18 days

High

Potentiala

Yes

Passive immune therapy

Hendra

Paramyxoviridae

4 to 18 days

High

Unknown

Yes

Passive immune therapy

CCHF

Bunyaviridae

3 to 7 days

Moderate

Yes

Yes

Ribavirin

Rift Valley fever

Bunyaviridae

2 to 14 days

Low to moderate

No

No

Ribavirin

Hantan, Seoul, and so on

Bunyaviridae

Days to months

Low to moderate

No

No

Ribavirinn, hemodialysis

Sin Nombre, Andes, and so on

Bunyaviridae

Days to months

Moderate

Nob

Nob

ECMO

Yellow fever

Flaviviridae

3 to 6 days

Moderate

No

No

Dengue

Flaviviridae

3 to 14 days

Low

No

No

RSSE

Flaviviridae

7 to 14 days

Moderate

No

No

Omsk/KFD/AHF

Flaviviridae

3 to 8 days

Moderate

Unknown

Yes


aHuman-to-human transmission has been reported from outbreaks in Bangladesh.

bAndes virus has been reported to be transmissible from human to human; isolation may be indicated.

AHFV = Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever; CCHF = Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever; ECMO = extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; KFD = Kyasanur Forest disease; RSSE = Russian spring-summer encephalitis; rVSV = recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus; siRNA = small interfering RNA molecule.

Ippolito et al. BMC Medicine 2012 10:31   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-31

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