Open Access Highly Accessed Open Badges Research article

Cycling and bone health: a systematic review

Hugo Olmedillas12, Alejandro González-Agüero12*, Luis A Moreno13, José A Casajus12 and Germán Vicente-Rodríguez12

  • * Corresponding author: Alejandro González-Agüero

  • † Equal contributors

Author affiliations

1 GENUD 'Growth, Exercise, NUtrition and Development' Research Group, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain

2 Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences (FCSD), Department of Physiatry and Nursing, Universidad de Zaragoza, Huesca, Spain

3 School of Health Science (EUCS), Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain

For all author emails, please log on.

Citation and License

BMC Medicine 2012, 10:168  doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-168

See related commentary

Published: 20 December 2012



Cycling is considered to be a highly beneficial sport for significantly enhancing cardiovascular fitness in individuals, yet studies show little or no corresponding improvements in bone mass.


A scientific literature search on studies discussing bone mass and bone metabolism in cyclists was performed to collect all relevant published material up to April 2012. Descriptive, cross-sectional, longitudinal and interventional studies were all reviewed. Inclusion criteria were met by 31 studies.


Heterogeneous studies in terms of gender, age, data source, group of comparison, cycling level or modality practiced among others factors showed minor but important differences in results. Despite some controversial results, it has been observed that adult road cyclists participating in regular training have low bone mineral density in key regions (for example, lumbar spine). Conversely, other types of cycling (such as mountain biking), or combination with other sports could reduce this unsafe effect. These results cannot yet be explained by differences in dietary patterns or endocrine factors.


From our comprehensive survey of the current available literature it can be concluded that road cycling does not appear to confer any significant osteogenic benefit. The cause of this may be related to spending long hours in a weight-supported position on the bike in combination with the necessary enforced recovery time that involves a large amount of time sitting or lying supine, especially at the competitive level.

cyclists; osteopenia; osteoporosis; sport; training