Table 1

Some medical conditions associated with episodic rage and violence

Psychiatric

Organic brain syndrome [35], Korsakoff's psychosis [86], bipolar disorder [87], psychoactive substance intoxication and withdrawal [88], psychotic disorders [89], premenstrual dysphoric disorder [90], post-traumatic stress disorder [22], panic disorder [4], generalized anxiety disorder [91], antisocial personality disorder [92], borderline personality disorder [92], personality disorders [92], attention deficit disorder [93], major depressive disorder [94].


Neurological

Brain tumors/lesions [95], head injury [27], Parkinson's disorder [96], seizure disorder [26], multiple sclerosis [97], normal pressure hydrocephalus [98], autism [34], Wilson's disease [29], Huntington's disease [99], dementia [100], stroke [101].


Nutritional deficiency

Omega-3 fatty acids [56], folate [29], cobalamin (B12) [102,103], thiamine [104,105], iron [106], lithium [107], magnesium [53,108], tryptophan [109], pyridoxine [29].


Medical and toxic

Alcohol [21,110], cocaine [21,111], manganese [29,112], organophosphorous compounds [29,113], phencyclidine (PCP) [114], lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) [101,115], heroin [101,116], amphetamines [117], benzodiazepines [117,118], prescription drugs [117,119], anabolic steroids [117].


Metabolic/Endocrine

Hypoglycaemia [101,117,120], hepatic encephalopathy [121], fluid and electrolyte imbalances [119], disorders of the thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal glands [29,122], hypoxia [101].


Miscellaneous

Intermittent Porphoria [123], chronic pain [124], sleep disorders [29,125], anemia [126], vasculitis [119], meningitis/encephalitis [101], syphilis [102].


Umhau et al. BMC Medicine 2012 10:146   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-146

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