Effect of perinatal nicotine exposure on mesenchymal protein markers of airway reactivity and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors α3 and α7 in tracheas of male and female F2 rats. Compared to the control group, with nicotine administration the protein levels of fibronectin, α-SMA, calponin, and collagens I and III increased significantly in male (A) but not in female rats (B). Upper panels show representative Western blots for these markers and GAPDH. Lower panels show the densitometric values of these markers normalized to GAPDH. Values are means ± SE. n = 6 for each group. * P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, versus control group. GAPDH, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; α-SMA, α-smooth muscle actin.
Rehan et al. BMC Medicine 2012 10:129 doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-129