Table 5

Prevalence and incidence density of chronic comorbid diseases: before, at time of, and after diabetes diagnosis (DD)1

Chronic disease2

Before diabetes

Date of DD

After diabetes


ID,3 year before DD

Prevalence4 at DD, % (95% CI)

ID3,first year after DD

ID3,first 5 years after DD

ID3, first 10 years after DD


Hypertension

75.2 (49.9 to 100.5)

38.4 (34.9 to 42.0)

56.8 (33.6 to 80.0)

42.6 (32.1 to 53.0)

40.0 (31.5 to 48.5)


Varicose veins; venous insufficiency

16.5 (5.7 to 27.3)

21.4 (18.5 to 24.6)

13.3 (3.5 to 23.2)

12.5 (7.6 to 17.4)

10.8 (7.0 to 14.6)


Angina pectoris

13.1 (4.0 to 22.2)

12.3 (10.1 to 14.9)

13.6 (4.2 to 22.9)

14.4 (9.5 to 19.3)

15.1 (10.9 to 19.3)


Atrial fibrillation/flutter

18.9 (8.2 to 29.7)

8.7 (6.8 to 10.9)

8.1 (1.0 to 15.2)

11.2 (7.0 to 15.5)

12.3 (8.6 to 16.0)


Myocardial infarction

17.2 (7.0 to 27.3)

8.5 (6.7 to 10.8)

4.8 (0.0 to 10.3)

7.8 (4.3 to 11.3)

9.6 (6.4 to 12.8)


(Congestive) heart failure

15.6 (5.9 to 25.3)

8.0 (6.2 to 10.2)

16.1 (6.1 to 26.1)

12.7 (8.3 to 17.2)

16.2 (12.0 to 20.4)


CVA

15.1 (5.7 to 24.5)

4.9 (3.5 to 6.7)

12.5 (3.8 to 21.1)

11.2 (7.1 to 15.4)

14.7 (10.7 to 18.6)


Intermittent claudication

9.0 (1.8 to 16.2)

4.3 (3.0 to 6.0)

4.6 (0.0 to 9.9)

4.3 (1.8 to 6.9)

3.5 (1.6 to 5.4)


TIA

8.9 (1.8 to 16.0)

2.9 (1.9 to 4.4)

4.6 (0.0 to 9.8)

5.5 (2.6 to 8.3)

5.9 (3.4 to 8.4)


Heart valve disease

6.0 (0.1 to 11.8)

2.9 (1.9 to 4.4)

7.6 (0.9 to 14.3)

5.8 (2.9 to 8.7)

5.6 (3.2 to 8.0)


Osteoarthritis, knee

14.7 (5.1 to 24.3)

12.0 (9.8 to 14.6)

6.7 (0.1 to 13.3)

13.9 (9.1 to 18.8)

13.3 (9.4 to 17.2)


Osteoarthritis, hip

7.9 (1.0 to 14.9)

8.7 (6.8 to 10.9)

1.6 (0.0 to 4.8)

3.7 (1.3 to 6.1)

5.4 (3.0 to 7.8)


Osteoarthritis, other

7.9 (1.0 to 14.8)

8.4 (6.5 to 10.6)

9.7 (1.9 to 17.5)

8.4 (4.7 to 12.0)

8.1 (5.1 to 11.1)


Osteoarthritis, cervical spine

6.2 (0.1 to 12.3)

7.1 (5.4 to 9.2)

4.8 (0.0 to 10.2)

2.4 (0.5 to 4.4)

2.5 (0.9 to 4.1)


Lumbar osteoarthritis

4.7 (0.0 to 9.9)

7.0 (5.3 to 9.1)

8.0 (1.0 to 14.9)

5.3 (2.4 to 8.2)

4.5 (2.3 to 6.8)


Rheumatoid arthritis; ankylosing spondylarthritis

0.0

1.4 (0.7 to 2.5)

0.0

0.4 (0.0 to 1.1)

1.0 (0.0 to 2.1)


(Chronic) functional somatic symptoms

5.4 (0.0 to 11.5)

19.2 (16.4 to 22.2)

3.7 (0.0 to 8.8)

3.8 (1.2 to 6.4)

3.5 (1.4 to 5.6)


Depression

3.0 (0.0 to 7.1)

2.5 (1.5 to 3.9)

0.0

1.2 (0.0 to 2.5)

1.3 (0.2 to 2.5)


Alzheimer's disease

7.3 (0.9 to 13.8)

1.5 (0.8 to 2.7)

3.0 (0.0 to 7.2)

5.0 (2.3 to 7.7)

7.1 (4.4 to 9.8)


Mental retardation

0.0

1.5 (0.8 to 2.7)

0.0

0.0

0.0


Deafness

16.6 (6.3 to 26.9)

13.6 (11.2 to 16.3)

13.7 (4.2 to 23.2)

15.5 (10.3 to 20.6)

13.7 (9.7 to 17.7)


Cataract

17.1 (7.0 to 27.2)

7.8 (6.0 to 10.0)

42.8 (26.3 to 59.2)

34.0 (26.4 to 41.6)

33.6 (27.2 to 40.0)


Glaucoma

3.0 (0.0 to 7.1)

2.9 (1.9 to 4.4)

3.0 (0.0 to 7.3)

3.1 (1.0 to 5.3)

2.4 (0.8 to 4.0)


Urinary incontinence5

13.1 (0.3 to 26.0)

13.2 (10.0 to 17.0)

16.6 (2.1 to 31.2)

17.3 (9.7 to 24.8)

14.7 (8.9 to 20.4)


Prostatic hyperplasia/hypertrophy6

19.3 (3.9 to 34.8)

9.7 (6.9 to 13.1)

3.4 (0.0 to 10.0)

8.7 (3.3 to 14.1)

10.4 (5.5 to 15.4)


Uterine fibroid5

0.0

2.2 (1.0 to 4.1)

0.0

0.7 (0.0 to 2.2)

0.5 (0.0 to 1.7)


Urinary incontinence6

9.0 (0.0 to 19.1)

2.0 (0.9 to 3.9)

9.4 (0.0 to 19.9)

5.7 (1.5 to 9.9)

5.1 (1.8 to 8.4)


COPD

3.3 (0.0 to 7.8)

11.2 (9.0 to 13.7)

1.7 (0.0 to 4.9)

3.7 (1.3 to 6.2)

3.4 (1.5 to 5.3)


Asthma

3.0 (0.0 to 7.1)

3.1 (2.0 to 4.6)

3.0 (0.0 to 7.3)

1.2 (0.0 to 2.5)

0.8 (0.0 to 1.7)


Psoriasis

4.6 (0.0 to 9.8)

5.6 (4.1 to 7.5)

1.6 (0.0 to 4.6)

2.0 (0.2 to 3.7)

1.6 (0.0 to 1.7)


Diaphragmatic hernia

1.5 (0.0 to 4.4)

2.5 (1.5 to 3.9)

0.0

0.0

0.3 (0.0 to 0.8)


Colonic diverticula; diverticulitis

1.5 (0.0 to 4.4)

2.0 (1.1 to 3.2)

3.0 (0.0 to 7.2)

2.3 (0.5 to 4.2)

2.1 (0.6 to 3.6)


Gout

4.5 (0.0 to 9.7)

4.1 (2.8 to 5.7)

0.0

3.5 (1.2 to 5.9)

3.0 (1.2 to 4.7)


Hypothyroidism

4.4 (0.0 to 9.5)

2.5 (1.5 to 3.9)

1.5 (0.0 to 4.5)

1.6 (0.0 to 3.1)

1.6 (0.3 to 2.9)


Hyperthyroidism

0.0

2.2 (1.3 to 3.5)

3.0 (0.0 to 7.2)

1.2 (0.0 to 2.5)

0.8 (0.0 to 1.7)


Breast cancer5

2.9 (0.0 to 8.7)

2.8 (1.4 to 4.9)

8.9 (0.0 to 18.9)

7.5 (2.8 to 12.1)

7.1 (3.4 to 10.9)


Prostate cancer6

0.0

1.7 (0.7 to 3.5)

6.2 (0.0 to 14.8)

2.4 (0.0 to 5.1)

3.9 (1.0 to 6.8)


Endometrial cancer5

0.0

1.4 (0.5 to 3.0)

2.9 (0.0 to 8.6)

0.7 (0.0 to 2.2)

0.5 (0.0 to 1.5)


Skin cancer

2.9 (0.0 to 7.0)

0.7 (0.3 to 1.5)

0.0

1.1 (0.0 to 2.4)

1.8 (0.5 to 3.2)


Colon cancer

0.0

0.6 (0.2 to 1.3)

0.0

1.5 (0.0 to 3.0)

2.1 (0.6 to 3.5)


Lung/bronchial cancer

1.5 (0.0 to 4.3)

0.3 (0.0 to 0.9)

3.0 (0.0 to 7.1)

1.5 (0.0 to 3.0)

1.8 (0.5 to 3.1)


Migraine

0.0

2.0 (1.1 to 3.2)

1.5 (0.0 to 4.5)

0.8 (0.0 to 1.8)

1.1 (0.0 to 2.1)


Abbreviations: DD, date of diabetes diagnosis; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CVA, cerebrovascular accident; ID, incidence density; TIA, transient ischemic attack.

1Confidence intervals for proportions were calculated with the Mid-P exact test. Confidence intervals for person time were calculated as a normal approximation to the Poisson interval. Values smaller than 0.0 have been truncated to 0.0.

2Diseases sorted by cluster, in decreasing prevalence at the date of DD diabetes date, and within the particular cluster by decreasing prevalence at date of DD.

3Incidence density in a specified time period was calculated as the number of new cases of comorbidity, divided by the number of person-years at risk for a diagnosis of the particular comorbidity. Expressed as number of new cases per 1,000 patient-years at risk (95% CI).

4Prevalence at diabetes date was calculated as the number of patients with the comorbidity of interest at the date of DD, divided by the total number of patients (n = 714).

5Prevalence and incidence displayed only for women in the study population.

6Prevalence and incidence displayed only for men in the study population.

Luijks et al. BMC Medicine 2012 10:128   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-128

Open Data