Figure 4.

Pinocembrin inhibited receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) expression in RAGE-overexpression cells and in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing the Swedish mutant form of human APP (APPsw) in the presence of copper. (A) Effects of pinocembrin on RAGE expression in RAGE-overexpression cells. (B) Mean_AvgInten value of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-RAGE in RAGE-overexpression cells being exposed to amyloid-β peptide (Aβ)1-42 for 24 h. Inhibition of RAGE expression results in changes of Mean_AvgInten value of EGFP-RAGE. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM, n = 6, ***P < 0.001 vs control, ###P < 0.001 vs Aβ1-42. (C) Nuclear Mean_AvgInten value in RAGE-overexpression cells cocultured with pinocembrin for 24 h. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM, n = 6. (D) Cell numbers per 20 fields of RAGE-overexpression cells cocultured with pinocembrin for 24 h. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM, n = 6. (E) Effects of pinocembrin on RAGE expression in APPsw cells in the presence of copper. (F) Mean_AvgInten value of EGFP-RAGE in RAGE-overexpression cells being exposed to Aβ1-42 for 24 h. Inhibition of RAGE expression results in changes of Mean_AvgInten value of EGFP-RAGE. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM, n = 6, ***P < 0.001 vs control, ###P < 0.001 vs copper. (G) Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for human RAGE mRNA in APPsw cells in the presence of copper. Data are presented as the mean ± SEM, n = 6, **P < 0.01 vs control, #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01 vs copper.

Liu et al. BMC Medicine 2012 10:105   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-105
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