Chemical structure of pinocembrin and the effect of pinocembrin on the behavior of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ)25-35-treated mice in Morris water maze (MWM). (A) Structure of pinocembrin. (B) Comparison of latency to platform during 5 days of training in MWM. Acquisition training was initiated on the third day of pinocembrin oral administration (day 1 for MWM test). Daily training consisted of four trials in which the mouse was placed in the water from four random starting positions (north, east, south, and west) and the escape latency onto the platform was recorded. Data are presented as the mean ± SEM. In all 12 mice were tested per group. (C) Pinocembrin increased the percentage of time the mouse stayed in the target quadrant in the probe test. ***P < 0.01 vs sham, ##P < 0.01, ###P < 0.001 vs Aβ25-35. Data are presented as the mean ± SEM, n = 12 mice per group. (D) Pinocembrin increased the numbers of crossings where the platform had been located in the probe test. ***P < 0.01 vs sham, ##P < 0.01 vs Aβ25-35. Data are presented as the mean ± SEM, n = 12 mice per group.
Liu et al. BMC Medicine 2012 10:105 doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-105