Valproic acid treatment does not affect protein levels of phospho-Smad1/5/8, Smad1, Smad2 and transforming growth factor β receptor (TGFβR) in primary human osteoblasts. (A) Representative western blot picture of primary human osteoblasts treated with 50 ng/ml recombinant human bone morphogenic protein (rhBMP)-2 or rhBMP-7 as well as 100/200 μM valproic acid ± 5 ng/ml rhTGFβ1 for 72 h. Membranes were probed for Smad1, Smad2, phospho-Smad1/5/8 and TGFβR. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was used as loading control. Densitometric analysis (N = 3; n = 6) for (B) phospho-Smad1/5/8, (C) Smad1 and (D) TGFβR. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001 as compared to untreated cells. °°°P < 0.001.
Ehnert et al. BMC Medicine 2012 10:101 doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-101