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Open Access Highly Accessed Commentary

Anaerobic Metazoans: No longer an oxymoron

Lisa A Levin

Author Affiliations

Integrative Oceanography Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA 92093-0218, USA

BMC Biology 2010, 8:31  doi:10.1186/1741-7007-8-31

Published: 6 April 2010


The sediments of a deep-sea hypersaline and sulfidic Mediterranean basin have yielded an unexpected discovery, the first multicellular animals living entirely without oxygen. Reported by Danovaro et al. in BMC Biology, these three new species of Loricifera add a new and remarkable dimension to anoxic ecosystems previously thought to support only unicellular life.