Cholera-endemic living conditions. (a) Conditions of ramshackle housing, poor sanitation and widespread fecal contamination prevalent in North Jakarta in the early 1990s when phase 2 pediatric clinical trials with CVD 103-HgR live oral cholera vaccine were carried out. (b) Similar conditions of inadequate housing, lack of sanitation and fecally contaminated surface waters in a favella (periurban slum) in São Paulo, Brazil of the type in which environmental enteropathy was first described by Fagundes Neto. Photograph kindly provided by Ulysses Fagundes Neto, Universidade Federal de São Paulo.
Levine BMC Biology 2010 8:129 doi:10.1186/1741-7007-8-129