Life form shifts in relation to time. Results from character state reconstructions in subfamily Lobelioideae. The pie charts on each node show the relative proportion of character assignments based on the individual results from the Fitch optimization of 1000 Bayesian post burn-in trees, counting uniquely best states. States of extant species are shown before each species name. Results plotted on the mean age chronogram obtained using Penalized Likelihood (Figure 4). See Table 2 for a definition of life forms.
Antonelli BMC Biology 2009 7:82 doi:10.1186/1741-7007-7-82