Table 3

Estimated divergence times for major avian clades compared across methods and topologies. Estimated time to most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of clades of non-controversial monophyletic status. Standard deviations are given in parentheses (for Dating5 and BEAST, standard deviations were calculated from 95% confidence/credibility intervals using a normal approximation). For r8s, PATHd8 and Multidivtime ages were estimated on each of the two fixed topologies (TConsensus and TOptimal). For BEAST, divergence times were estimated simultaneously with phylogeny (TFlexible). For each method an estimate of the magnitude of disagreement between fossil and molecular estimates of divergence times (δRealized MA-FA) is calculated as an average of MA-FA (the molecular age minus the fossil age) for those 18 internal nodes with calibration points.

r8s

PATHd8

Multidivtime

Dating5

BEAST


Node

tMRCA

TConsensus

TOptimal

TConsensus

TOptimal

TConsensus

TOptimal

TOptimal

TFlexible


A

Neognaths-Paleognaths

125.7 (12.4)

131.1 (10.7)

114.3 (6.9)

102.8 (6.1)

129.9 (11.0)

132.4 (10.7)

132.9 (11.6)

133.2 (8.1)

B

Paleognaths

98.1 (10.6)

104.8 (10.7)

72.8 (5.0)

66.3 (4.6)

107.6 (11.2)

110.1 (11.2)

80 (6.8)

105.9 (11.7)

C

Galloanserae

93.6 (10.7)

100.7 (10.1)

86.4 (5.5)

78.7 (4.7)

97.3 (9.9)

100.6 (9.5)

89.3 (3.2)

110.4 (7.8)

D

Galloanserae-Neoaves

114.6 (12.1)

121.9 (10.5)

103.1 (6.0)

93.1 (5.4)

116.1 (11.0)

120.8 (10.5)

126.8 (6.1)

126.0 (7.1)

E

Neoaves

104.5 (11.4)

116.6 (9.9)

90.4 (5.1)

86.1 (5.0)

101.3 (10.1)

113.4 (10.1)

123.9 (5.3)

118.5 (6.8)

F

Ratites

67.4 (9.6)

89.3 (12.1)

49.5 (3.5)

46.7 (3.2)

92.1 (10.3)

97.3 (10.4)

40.6 (12.3)

91.5 (12.0)

G

Galliformes

82.1 (9.7)

88.4 (9.4)

82.2 (6.0)

73.2 (5.4)

87.4 (9.5)

87.2 (9.2)

67.3 (11.3)

99.0 (8.4)

H

Anseriformes

82.7 (10.1)

89.1 (10.7)

70.6 (4.0)

67.1 (2.8)

88.5 (9.3)

91.5 (9.0)

85.4 (4.1)

100.5. (8.3)

I

Charadriiformes

81.8 (11.5)

94.0 (9.2)

55.4 (3.6)

49.9 (3.1)

80.2 (8.5)

80.6 (7.8)

41.9 (4.5)

81.7 (6.3)

J

Passeriformes

85.4 (9.1)

99.5 (8.2)

89.0 (5.5)

85.5 (5.2)

78.4 (8.5)

97.8 (9.3)

84.9 (12.5)

106.6 (7.2)

K

Piciformes

90.9 (10.1)

99.6 (9.0)

89.0 (5.5)

79.0 (4.8)

83.0 (9.2)

91.1 (9.1)

101.0 (8.8)

93.6 (6.8)

L

Procellariiformes

73.8 (10.8)

89.9 (9.1)

55.6 (2.2)

38.1 (2.8)

80.0 (8.7)

78.5 (7.8)

38.8 (12.4)

74.7 (7.3)

M

Cuculiformes

73.9 (8.3)

79.5 (7.4)

65.0 (4.4)

60.1 (4.1)

68.3 (8.0)

74.3 (8.0)

52.5 (6.7)

74.1 (8.6)

N

Strigiformes

88.2 (9.9)

94.7 (8.6)

89.0 (5.9)

79.0 (5.1)

82.5 (9.7)

88.5 (9.4)

93.2 (11.5)

84.2 (9.1)

O

Apodiformes

77.4 (9.3)

75.1 (7.4)

70.0 (5.6)

53.5 (1.9)

77.3 (9.0)

63.4 (7.2)

55.8 (9.1)

80.5 (9.9)


δRealized MA-FA

39.8

44.6

24.2

16.9

36.8

36.1

24.8

36.5


Brown et al. BMC Biology 2008 6:6   doi:10.1186/1741-7007-6-6

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