Additional file 3.


Movements of the foregut and gut contents of the carabid beetle Pterostichus stygicus. View (3.3 × 2.5 mm) is a dorsoventral projection through the pterothorax, posterior to the mesocoxae (circular structures seen at top of image). The beetle (mass ~210 mg) was fed macerated larva sprinkled with cadmium powder to increase x-ray (25 keV) absorption contrast; the gut boundaries and food movement can only be seen in places with cadmium powder. In this sequence, the crop (bag-like structure, center left) is squeezed anteriorly and then slowly settles back into its initial orientation. Mixing movements and peristalsis of the proventriculus (cylindrical structure, right side) can also be seen. Note that the proventriculus is closed, preventing food from moving posteriorly into the midgut. Dark bands on the left side of the video are artifacts from the incident beam.

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Socha et al. BMC Biology 2007 5:6   doi:10.1186/1741-7007-5-6