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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Sequential super-stereotypy of an instinctive fixed action pattern in hyper-dopaminergic mutant mice: a model of obsessive compulsive disorder and Tourette's

Kent C Berridge1*, J Wayne Aldridge12, Kimberly R Houchard13 and Xiaoxi Zhuang4

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA

2 Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA

3 Wayne State University Medical School, Detroit, USA

4 Department of Neurobiology, Pharmacology, and Physiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, USA

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BMC Biology 2005, 3:4  doi:10.1186/1741-7007-3-4

Published: 14 February 2005

Additional files

Additional File 1:

Movie: Sequential super-stereotypy of an instinctive fixed action pattern in hyper-dopaminergic mutant mice. Windows Media Player movie file (.avi):

    DAT Knockdown grooming fixed action pattern.avi
Examples of syntactic grooming chains performed by three hyperdopaminergic mutant mice are shown in the accompanying movie file. Choreograph diagrams of component movements' form and sequence are displayed for each syntactic chain, and strokes are illuminated sequentially in synchrony with their corresponding movements. Note that the first two syntactic chains contain insertion or reversal errors (Mutant mouse 1: paw lick insertions in Phase II, between Phases II and III, and between Phases III and IV; also reversal insertion of a Phase I ellipse stroke within Phase II. Mutant mouse 2: paw lick insertions within Phase I, within Phase III, and between Phases III and IV). However, the syntactic chains are not disrupted by these errors, and the mutants continue on with the sequential pattern to successfully complete Phase IV (body licking). Mutant mouse 3 also shows the ventral view that permits the viewer to see both forepaws simultaneously, which was used to score all syntactic chains in the laboratory.

Format: AVI Size: 8MB Download file

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