Table 2

Predictions and statistical tests for effects of low-dose radiation on pale grass blue butterflies (Hiyama et al. [10])
Analyses Expectations Findings
Color patterns specific for radiation If radiation is a unique environmental stressor, we should expect specific effects of radiation Color patterns were specific for radiation, and differed from those caused by temperature and crosses between siblings
Temporal variation predating the accident If radiation is the causative agent for abnormalities, there should be fewer abnormalities from Fukushima before the accident Lower frequency of abnormalities at Fukushima before than after the accident
Heritability of minor morphological abnormalities If the abnormalities are caused by germline mutations, we should expect these to be transferred to the next generation Offspring resembled their parents with respect to abnormalities in random crosses
Mutation accumulation If mutations accumulate over time, there should be an increase in the frequency of abnormalities from first over second to third generation Increase in frequency of abnormalities across generations
Positive controls Controls reared in the laboratory, but not exposed to radiation should resemble animals from control areas with respect to abnormalities Similar frequency of abnormalities in positive controls and animals from uncontaminated areas

Møller and Mousseau

Møller and Mousseau BMC Biology 2013 11:92   doi:10.1186/1741-7007-11-92

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