Table 3

Cranial landmark descriptions and assignment to skull regions for disparity analysesa
Landmark numberb Landmark description Skull region
1c,d Midline point between the premaxillae and the upper central incisors Oral
2c,d Midline anterior-most point of the nasal-nasal suture Viscerocranium (non-oral)
3d Midline posterior point of the nasals in contact with frontals Viscerocranium (non-oral)
4d Midline posterior point of the frontals in contact with parietals Neurocranium
5c,d Midpoint at posterior-most extent of vault Neurocranium
6 and 7c,d Anterior nasal-premaxilla/maxilla (nasal opening), left and right Viscerocranium (both oral and non-oral)
8 and 9c Premaxilla-maxilla suture on the alveolar lateral margin, left and right Oral
10 and 11 Nasal-frontal-maxilla/premaxilla suture junction, left and right Viscerocranium (both oral and non-oral)
12 and 13 Medial-most maxilla-lacrimal contact, left and right Viscerocranium (both oral and non-oral)
14 and 15 Lateral most maxilla-lacrimal contact, left and right Viscerocranium (both oral and non-oral)
16 and 17c Jugal-squamosal (dorsal zygomatic arch), left and right Viscerocranium (non-oral)
18 and 19c Jugal-squamosal (ventral zygomatic arch), left and right Viscerocranium (non-oral)
20 and 21c,d Dorsal most occipital condyle-foramen magnum margin, left and right Neurocranium
22 and 23cc Ventral-most extent of frontal-parietal suture, left and right Neurocranium
24c Midline posterior point of the palatine-palatine suture Oral
25 and 26c,d Ventral-most point of the jugal-maxilla suture Viscerocranium (non-oral)
27 and 28d Posterior-most maxilla-palatine junction on ventral surface, left and right Oral
29 and 30c Posterior lateral extent of molar row Oral
31 and 32c Anterior lateral extent of molar row Oral

aFossil skulls investigated here included the Oligo-Miocene peramelmorphian Galadi speciosus, the Quaternary diprotodontians Sthenurus occidentalis, Zygomaturus trilobus, and Thylacoleo carnifex, and the sparassodonts Thylacosmilus atrox (Miocene) and Arctodictis sinclari (Eocene).

bNumbers correspond to Figure 1.

cLandmarks used in ‘maximum fossil’ dataset

dLandmarks used ‘maximum taxa’ dataset.

Bennett and Goswami

Bennett and Goswami BMC Biology 2013 11:52   doi:10.1186/1741-7007-11-52

Open Data