A more detailed view of a p97-complex. p97 binds the ubiquitylated substrate (S) through the Ufd1-Npl4 adapter to extract it from a binding partner (B). In addition, p97 is linked to the neddylated CRL-E3 ubiquitin ligase through the UBXD7 adapter, which binds Nedd8 via its UIM and possibly coordinates extraction with upstream ubiquitylation. p97 can also bind one of several deubiquitylating enzymes (DUB) that may edit the ubiquitin chains to control the downstream fate of the substrate.
Meyer BMC Biology 2012 10:48 doi:10.1186/1741-7007-10-48