Patterns of geographic movement of virus lineages. (A) Evolutionary relationships among 376 viruses sampled evenly through time colored by geographic location. Lineages residing in the north (N), south (S), and tropics (T) are colored yellow, red, and blue, respectively. (B) Observed migration rates between regions on side branch lineages (left) and on trunk lineages (right). Arrows denote movement of lineages, and arrow width is proportional to migration rate. Circle area is proportional to the expected stationary frequency of a region given the observed migration rates. In both cases, migration rates are calculated across 80 replicate simulations.
Bedford et al. BMC Biology 2012 10:38 doi:10.1186/1741-7007-10-38