Table 4

Exposure variables of organised crime and political violence (OPV) and human rights violations

Exposure

Variables

Arrest or detention

Torture, and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment

Participation in a combat and 'Cross-Fire'

Extrajudicial execution or murder by law enforcement agency


No

Yes

OR (95% CI)

P value

No

Yes

OR (95% CI)

P value

No

Yes

OR (95% CI)

P value

No

Yes

OR (95% CI)

P value

Involved in political party

Not involved

614

194

1

-

597

211

1

-

800

8

1

-

786

22

1

-

Awami League

61

67

3.44 (2.25-5.26)

< 0.001

67

61

2.54 (1.15-5.61)

< 0.05

107

21

19.53 (4.71-80.91)

< 0.001

102

26

9.22(2.60-32.64)

< 0.001

Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP)

81

46

1.85 (0.92-3.71)

0.083

65

62

2.92 (1.41-6.03)

< 0.005

103

24

21.62 (4.21-111.02)

< 0.001

100

27

9.15 (2.02-41.54)

< 0.005

Jamaat-e-Islami Party

22

9

1.31 (0.68-2.50)

0.419

25

6

0.51 (0.15-1.75)

0.285

30

1

2.03 (0.29-14.04)

0.472

28

3

3.97 (1.05-15.04)

< 0.05

Other

2

1

1.60 (0.16-15.64)

0.686

1

2

3.47 (0.31-38.33)

0.331

3

0

0

-

3

0

0

-


Social participation

Not involved

473

133

1

-

444

162

1

-

601

5

1

-

587

19

1

-

Family member has participated in a demonstration, a strike, or a human rights rally

308

184

2.10 (1.57-2.81)

< 0.001

312

180

1.50 (0.88-2.57)

0.136

443

49

10.98 (5.07-23.78)

< 0.001

433

59

3.64 (1.25-10.64)

< 0.05


Inter-personal relationship

Not involved

240

55

1

-

214

81

1

-

289

6

1

-

286

9

1

-

Family member has personal, financial or political conflict with other families

541

262

2.38 (1.80-3.14)

< 0.001

542

261

1.26 (0.71-2.21)

0.429

755

48

4.03 (2.23-7.27)

< 0.001

734

69

3.68 (1.99-6.78)

< 0.001

No relationship

378

158

1

-

363

173

1

-

502

34

1

-

491

45

1

-

Family member or friends work with a law enforcement agency

403

159

0.92 (0.67-1.27)

0.621

393

169

0.90 (0.65-1.24)

0.509

542

20

0.49 (0.29-0.81)

< 0.01

529

33

0.63 (0.31-1.29)

0.207


Upazila

(sub-district)

Gangni upazila

355

94

1

-

329

120

1

-

447

2

1

-

441

8

1

-

Mujibnagar upazila

113

87

2.62 (0.90-7.63)

0.078

105

95

2.38 (0.70-8.11)

0.165

197

3

2.23 (0.40-12.52)

0.362

181

19

5.63 (1.41-22.45)

< 0.05

Meherpur upazila

314

136

1.58 (1.00-2.49)

0.05

322

128

1.08 (0.34-3.49)

0.894

401

49

26.09 (2.75-247.28)

< 0.005

399

51

6.38 (1.01-40.40)

< 0.05


Religion of the head of household

Muslim

754

304

1

-

729

329

1

-

981

77

1

-

981

77

1

-

Hindu

18

7

0.80 (0.41-1.55)

0.511

16

9

1.01 (0.24-4.29)

0.992

24

1

0.73 (0.29-1.85)

0.507

24

1

0.53 (0.15-1.94)

0.339


Household income

(Bangladesh taka: USD = 68:1)

0-2000 taka per month

193

56

1

-

178

71

1

-

246

3

1

-

239

10

1

-

2001-4000 taka per month

377

150

1.41 (1.01-1.96)

< 0.05

375

152

1.12 (0.70-1.81)

0.632

504

23

4.50 (0.78-25.97)

< 0.05

489

38

2.00 (0.59-6.76)

0.263

4001-8000 taka per month

159

82

1.84 (1.20-2.81)

< 0.005

150

91

1.56 (0.98-2.48)

0.059

218

23

10.35 (1.45-73.79)

< 0.05

214

27

3.35 (0.72-15.52)

0.122

> 8000 taka per month

49

25

1.88 (1.01-3.48)

< 0.05

50

24

1.09 (0.62-1.94)

0.757

70

4

4.80 (1.54-14.96)

< 0.01

71

3

0.79 (0.16-3.97)

0.776


Generalised linear model adjusted to household income level, size of family and cluster effect of village

Wang et al. BMC International Health and Human Rights 2009 9:29   doi:10.1186/1472-698X-9-29

Open Data