Table 1

Name, year

Setting;

Country

Population

Design

N

Duration outside

Tibet

Torture

survivors (%)

Detained (n)

Measurement

tools

Outcomes


PHR, 1997

Dharamsala Refugee Reception Center,

Transit School for Young Adults,

and a Buddhist monastery; India

Mixed population

including clergy

Cross-sectional

258 (191 men

and 67 women)

Median 6 months

21%

20%

10-item validated

questionnaire to assess

torture (UN Torture Convention)

15% (10–19%)

Torture survivors

53

21%

HSCL-25-anxiety-depression

53% (40–66%)

40% (28–53%)

DSM-IV criteria

for PTSD

23% (13–39%)


Holtz, 1998

35 tortured Tibetan nuns

and students with a cohort

of 35 closely matched subjects.

Retrospective cohort

70

Mean of

30.9 months

(SD = 19.2)

50%

For torture survivors

HSCL-25

- anxiety

- depression

54% (44–63%)

14% (8–22%)


Servan-Schreiber, 1998

Tibetan Childrens Village,

Dharamsala, India

Children

Cross-sectional

61

Mean 13.3 months

NA

NA

DSM-IV PTSD

DSM-IV Major depression

11.5 (3.5–19.5%)

11.5 (3.5–19.5%)

DSM-IV Major depression

11.5 (3.5–19.5%)


Crescenzi, 2002

Confidential setting,

Dharamsala, India

Purposeful adults

-76 previously imprisoned

74 never imprisoned

Case-control

150

0–4 years

95%

50%

For total sample

HSCL-25

- anxiety

- depression

HTQ assessment

63% (55–70%)

57% (49–65%)

20 (14–27%)


Terheggen, 2001

Refugee camp,

North India

Random selection using

random sequencing

Cross-sectional

76

1 month-2.5 years

12%

25%

PTI

HSCL-25

- anxiety

- depression

Median 3

(range 0–3)

25% (17–36%)

42% (32–53%)


HSCL, Hopkins Symptom Check List, PTI, Post Traumatic Inventory

Mills et al. BMC International Health and Human Rights 2005 5:7   doi:10.1186/1472-698X-5-7

Open Data