Table 3

Variables associated with IPV by type among women during the 12 months prior to the survey
Dependent variables Psychological aggressionm Physical assaultm Sexual coercionm

Physical assault with injurym

N = 1040

N = 1265 N = 1271 N = 1258
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Independent variables
Demographics/socio-economics
(Block 1)
  Marital statusa
  Married/cohabitant 1.28 (0.82–2.01) 1.19 (0.77–1.85) 0.80 (0.55–1.15) 1.07 (0.66–1.72)
  Divorced/Separated 0.34 (0.17–0.69) 0.99 (0.45–2.17) 0.40 (0.22–0.71) 1.88 (0.92–3.82)
  Widow 0.65 (0.28–1.51) 1.52 (0.61–3.82) 0.46 (0.21–1.03) 0.85 (0.33–2.17)
  Singlec 1 1 1 1
Children at homea NA1 NA1 NA1
  Yes 2.69 (1.51–4.79)
  Noc 1
Housinga NA1 NA1 NA1
  Non-conventionald 1.12 (0.58–2.16)
  Conventionalc, e 1
Educationa NA1 NA1 NA1
  Lowf 2.32 (0.92–5.83)
  Middleg 3.17 (1.31–7.64)
  Highh 3.33 (1.27–8.73)
  Cannot read/writec 1
Occupational statusa NA1 NA1 NA1
  Blue-collar worker 0.82 (0.14–4.75)
  Low white-collar worker 0.66 (0.09–4.86)
  Inter/high white-collar worker 0.94 (0.14–6.23)
  Student/otherc 1
Socio-economic statusa NA1 NA1 NA1
  Work for othersi 0.60 (0.11–3.28)
  Liberal/own businessj 0.85 (0.15–4.78)
  Domestic/otherk 1.70 (0.32–9.11)
  Studentc 1
Salary/financial resourcesa NA1 NA1 NA1
  Yes 1.70 (0.92–3.16)
  Noc 1
Financial straina NA1 NA1 NA1
  Yes 1.44 (0.83–2.49)
  Noc 1
R2n (7.1) (2.1) (3.4) (7.5)
Life-style
(Block 2)
BMIb NA1 NA1 NA1 1.01 (0.97 1.06)
Drinkinga
  Yes 0.89 (0.60–1.33) 0.93 (0.62–1.40) 1.33 (0.95–1.87) 0.73 (0.49–1.10)
  N0c 1 1 1 1
Smokinga NA1 NA1
  Yes 1.43 (0.65–3.14) 2.22 (0.92–5.33)
  Noc 1 1
R2n (0.08) (1) (2.1) (2.3)
Controlling behaviours over partner
(Block 3)
Controlb 1.03 (1.01–1.05) 1.00 (0.98–1.02) 1.02 (1.00–1.03) 1.00 (0.98–1.02)
R2n (12.8) (16.2) (15) (12.6)
Controlling behaviours by partner
(Block 4)
Controlb 0.98 (0.97–0.99) 1.03 (1.02–1.04) 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 1.04 (1.03–1.05)
R2n (0.05) (4.1) (1) (6.6)
Perpetration
(Block 5)
Psychological aggressiona NA1
  Yes 4.04 (2.22–7.33) 1.89 (1.10–3.27) 1.95 (0.86–4.42)
  Noc 1 1 1
Physical assaulta NA1
  Yes 2.40 (1.22–4.74) 1.31 (0.88–1.94) 1.39 (0.89–2.16)
  Noc 1 1 1
Sexual coerciona NA1
  Yes 0.95 (0.53–1.71) 0.93 (0.57–1.52) 1.95 (1.22–3.11)
  Noc 1 1
Physical assault with injurya NA1
  Yes 0.89 (0.33–2.40) 3.56 (1.55–8.15) 2.02 (1.22–3.32)
  Noc 1 1 1
  R2n (29.8) (42.5) (31.5) (25.3)
Victimization
(Block 6)
Psychological aggressiona NA1
  Yes 8.37 (4.36–16.06) 5.80 (3.24–10.39) 2.81 (1.08–7.35)
  Noc 1 1 1
Physical assaulta NA1
  Yes 13.63 (1.65–24.29) 3.71 (2.41–5.70) 10.61 (5.21–21.61)
  Noc 1 1 1
Sexual coerciona NA1
  Yes 8.23 (4.69–14.44) 4.33 (2.70–6.95) 1.14 (0.68–1.93)
  Noc 1 1 1
Physical assault with injurya NA1
  Yes 4.25 (2.01–8.98) 7.54 (4.21–13.53) 1.11 (0.72–1.71)
  Noc 1 1 1
R2n (19.9) (9.2) (6.5) (6.2)
Abuse as a child
(Block 7)
Psychological abusea
  Yes 1.40 (0.51–3.84) 0.94 (0.40–2.24) 1.56 (0.68–3.57) 0.42 (0.18–1.02)
  Noc 1 1 1 1
Physical abusea
  Yes 1.51 (1.01–2.25) 0.91 (0.60–1.36) 0.92 (0.65–1.28) 0.69 (0.46–1.04)
  Noc 1 1 1 1
Sexual abusea
  Yes 0.84 (0.30–2.34) 0.59 (0.22–1.64) 1.54 (0.66–3.57) 2.28 (0.99–5.21)
  Noc 1 1 1 1
Injurya
  Yes 0.53 (0.22–1.27) 1.29 (0.58–2.88) 1.71 (0.86–3.41) 1.57 (0.80–3.07)
  Noc 1 1 1 1
R2n (0.03) (0.01) (0.03) (0.09)
Total R2 (69.76) (75.11) (59.53) (60.59)

a= category variables; b = continuous variables; c = comparison categories; d = e.g. own/rent housing in local materials such as wood; e = e.g. own/rent housing in cement; f = primary school/similar.

g= secondary school/similar; h = university/similar; i = e.g. clerks; j = e.g. accountants; k = at home/unemployed; l = NA, non-applicable; m = different models are used in terms of independent variables; n = proportion of the total R2 explained by each block; R2 = Nagelkerke; OR, Odds Ratio; 95% CI = 95% Confidence interval.

Zacarias et al.

Zacarias et al. BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:35   doi:10.1186/1472-698X-12-35

Open Data