Table 2

Sources of Community Access - Kurdish Afghan Refugees NZ and Australia study (KARNZA)

New Zealand

Limited access to the communities was already established through personal and professional connections with Refugee Services Aotearoa, refugee and Muslim groups in Christchurch.


(Estimated community size 180-200)

The small size and cohesion of the group enabled all adult community members to be contacted and former refugees invited to participate. Initial introduction to families was through the Kurdish committee chairperson & interpreters, who provided follow up contact details. Religious (Eid), ethnic (Newroz) & marriage celebrations were attended by the lead researcher and proved valuable for establishing relationships.

Total number recruited: 49 (27 male (55%), 22 female (45%))


(Estimated community size 1000-1200)

Initial contact points included community leaders from Afghan & Refugee associations, cross-cultural workers & interpreters, Afghan sports teams and existing contacts. A total of eight contacts provided discrete links for further referrals.

Total number recruited: 49 (32 male (65%), 17 female (35%))


No prior connections with either group in Perth necessitated a more general approach. Websites for ethnic and Muslim groups provided initial links and phone numbers, also Muslim women's support groups and ESOL language classes. Afghan & Kurdish academics at Curtin university provided background data on community profiles and contacts.


(Estimated community size 1000-1500)

Initial contacts were with members of the Kurdish committee responsible for organising a Newroz festival event, which was subsequently attended by the lead researcher. They provided additional contact information for interpreters who assisted with data collection. Several meetings took place in Kurdish-owned kebab restaurants, popular spots for community members to congregate. Additional contacts were also obtained from independent Muslim sources. A total of six separate contact people provided snowball initiation points.

Total number recruited: 54 (28 male (52%), 26 female (48%))


(Estimated community size 1000-1500)

Six discrete people were also used to initiate sampling in the Afghan group. These included community leaders for different ethnic groups & Afghan associations, Muslim women's organisations and cross-cultural workers. ESOL classes with Farsi-speaking interpreters also proved useful for recruitment of a mixture of Afghan women.

Total number recruited: 41 (13 male (32%), 28 female (68%))

Note: Estimates of community size were provided by representatives of the respective groups

Sulaiman-Hill and Thompson BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11:2   doi:10.1186/1472-698X-11-2

Open Data