Table 4

Multivariable associations between child and caregiver characteristics, work status and labor

Any work 1

<21 hrs 2

22-27 hrs 2

Labor 2


Child gender

Male

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

Female

2.23**

2.27**

2.46**

2.06**

[1.57 - 3.18]

[1.57 - 3.28]

[1.37 - 4.43]

[1.23 - 3.46]

Relationship

Biological child

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

Other

1.54

1.51

2.34

1.23

[0.92 - 2.57]

[0.91 - 2.52]

[0.91 - 6.04]

[0.60 - 2.53]

School enrollment

Enrolled

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

Not enrolled

2.02

1.71

1.94

4.04*

[0.94 - 4.35]

[0.82 - 3.56]

[0.48 - 7.86]

[1.37 - 11.94]

Caregiver reported

Very good or good

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

health of the child

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

Fair

1.27

1.28

1.88

1.05

[0.75 - 2.16]

[0.74 - 2.21]

[0.80 - 4.42]

[0.52 - 2.11]

Poor or very poor

0.53

0.49

0.64

0.55

[0.26 - 1.07]

[0.24 - 1.03]

[0.18 - 2.20]

[0.22 - 1.37]

Child age

6-7

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

8-10

4.05**

3.55**

6.84**

6.70**

[2.68 - 6.13]

[2.33 - 5.41]

[2.79 - 16.78]

[3.24 - 13.84]

11-12

4.80**

4.09**

10.87**

7.17**

[2.90 - 7.92]

[2.39 - 6.98]

[4.11 - 28.73]

[3.26 - 15.77]

Caregiver gender

Male

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

Female

1.2

1.34

1.06

0.79

[0.73 - 1.97]

[0.79 - 2.28]

[0.44 - 2.56]

[0.35 - 1.77]

Caregiver age

18-35

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

36-55

0.68

0.67

0.57

0.77

[0.46 - 1.02]

[0.44 - 1.02]

[0.28 - 1.13]

[0.42 - 1.42]

56+

0.48*

0.45*

0.35

0.66

[0.24 - 0.94]

[0.22 - 0.94]

[0.12 - 1.02]

[0.26 - 1.68]

Marital status

Married

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

Widowed

1

1.13

1.22

0.51

[0.58 - 1.73]

[0.66 - 1.94]

[0.49 - 3.04]

[0.25 - 1.05]

Other

1.01

1.14

0.91

0.66

[0.54 - 1.87]

[0.59 - 2.21]

[0.26 - 3.26]

[0.24 - 1.81]

Caregiver health

Very good or good

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

Fair

1.51

1.56

1.79

1.23

[0.97 - 2.36]

[0.97 - 2.52]

[0.81 - 3.96]

[0.65 - 2.32]

Poor or very poor

0.85

0.83

0.87

0.97

[0.50 - 1.47]

[0.48 - 1.46]

[0.34 - 2.23]

[0.44 - 2.10]

Caregiver education

Less than 7 years

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

7 years or more

1.03

1.02

1.02

1.06

[0.97 - 1.09]

[0.96 - 1.08]

[0.92 - 1.12]

[0.97 - 1.16]

Earning an income

Yes

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

No

1.12

0.95

1.52

2.26*

[0.72 - 1.76]

[0.59 - 1.52]

[0.67 - 3.44]

[1.20 - 4.23]

Wealth index

0.55**

0.59**

0.63

0.36**

[0.39 - 0.78]

[0.42 - 0.83]

[0.36 - 1.09]

[0.22 - 0.59]

# of children caring for

1.04

1.05

1.06

0.96

[0.94 - 1.16]

[0.94 - 1.17]

[0.91 - 1.25]

[0.83 - 1.12]

Location

Urban

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

Rural

3.12**

2.76**

3.91**

3.88**

[1.98 - 4.90]

[1.74 - 4.36]

[1.94 - 7.89]

[2.12 - 7.10]


*, **, and *** denote significance at the 0.05, 0.01, and 0.001 levels, respectively

1 relative to no work; estimates from a logistic regression model controlling for site fixed effects

2 relative to no work; estimates from a multinomial logistic regression model controlling for site fixed effects

Whetten et al. BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11:1   doi:10.1186/1472-698X-11-1

Open Data