Table 3

Multivariable associations between caregiver characteristics, child work status and child labor

Any work 1

<21 hrs 2

22-27 hrs 2

Labor 2


Caregiver gender

Male

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

Female

1.02

0.91

1.27

1.48

[0.64 - 1.62]

[0.55 - 1.48]

[0.53 - 3.04]

[0.68 - 3.21]

Caregiver age

18-35

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

36-55

0.74

0.72

0.65

0.82

[0.51 - 1.07]

[0.49 - 1.06]

[0.34 - 1.25]

[0.46 - 1.46]

56+

0.69

0.65

0.62

0.8

[0.39 - 1.22]

[0.36 - 1.20]

[0.25 - 1.52]

[0.35 - 1.82]

Marital status

Married

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

Widowed

0.74

0.85

0.65

0.46**

[0.50 - 1.11]

[0.56 - 1.30]

[0.32 - 1.32]

[0.26 - 0.81]

Other

0.76

0.87

0.62

0.54

[0.43 - 1.35]

[0.48 - 1.59]

[0.19 - 2.01]

[0.21 - 1.38]

Caregiver health

Very good or good

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

Fair

1.44

1.47

1.85

1.16

[0.96 - 2.17]

[0.96 - 2.25]

[0.89 - 3.84]

[0.65 - 2.08]

Poor or very poor

0.67

0.66

0.68

0.71

[0.41 - 1.11]

[0.40 - 1.08]

[0.28 - 1.67]

[0.34 - 1.45]

Caregiver education

Less than 7 years

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

7 years or more

1.24

1.19

1.21

1.49

[0.85 - 1.81]

[0.81 - 1.74]

[0.63 - 2.33]

[0.83 - 2.70]

Earning an income

Yes

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

No

1.05

0.87

1.41

2.06*

[0.70 - 1.60]

[0.56 - 1.37]

[0.64 - 3.09]

[1.14 - 3.75]

Wealth index

0.54**

0.58**

0.61

0.34**

[0.39 - 0.74]

[0.43 - 0.80]

[0.37 - 1.02]

[0.22 - 0.55]

# of children caring for

1.04

1.04

1.06

0.95

[0.94 - 1.14]

[0.95 - 1.15]

[0.91 - 1.24]

[0.82 - 1.09]

Location

Urban

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

(reference)

Rural

2.79**

2.44**

3.27**

3.60**

[1.83 - 4.25]

[1.60 - 3.73]

[1.71 - 6.26]

[2.02 - 6.41]


*, **, and *** denote significance at the 0.05, 0.01, and 0.001 levels, respectively

1 relative to no work; estimates from a logistic regression model controlling for site fixed effects

2 relative to no work; estimates from a multinomial logistic regression model controlling for site fixed effects

Whetten et al. BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11:1   doi:10.1186/1472-698X-11-1

Open Data