Table 1

Health technology stagnation in sub-Saharan Africa

Technology

Description of technology (according to the scientist)*

Health area of application

Country / Institution

Status (according to the scientist)


Traditional plant technologies


1

Artemisinin/lemon grass combination

A beverage that is used to treat malaria.

Malaria

Uganda- Natural Chemotherapeutics Research Laboratory

Ready for commercialization, but not yet commercialized. Undergoing clinical trials in northern Uganda

2

Nibima- Extract of traditional plant Cryptolepis sanguinolenta

Whole plant extract for the management of malaria

Malaria

Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine, in Mampong, Ghana http://www.asnapp.org/ webcite

Needs validation through clinical trials

3

Neem tree

Extract from the Neem plant

Malaria

Kenya-ICIPE http://www.icipe.org webcite

Scientist has no plans to commercialize. Needs validation through clinical trials.

4

Neem tree

Extract from the Neem plant

Malaria

Rwanda-IRST http://www.irst.ac.rw/ webcite

Scientist was unsure how to commercialize. Needs validation through clinical trials.

5

Whole plant extract

Whole plant extract

Malaria

University of Lagos http://www.unilag.edu.ng/index.php?page=home webcite

Scientist was unsure how to commercialize. Needs validation though clinical trials.

6

Tanzed Plus

Whole plant extract for the management of HIV

HIV/AIDS management

Tanzania-Muhimbili University of Health and Applied Sciences http://www.muchs.ac.tz webcite

Needs validation through clinical trials

7

Sunguprot

Extract of the root of Tylosema Fassoglensis mixed with soya beans-Nutritional supplement that acts as an immune booster.

HIV/AIDS management

Kenya-KIRDI http://www.kirdi.go.ke/ webcite

Needs validation through clinical trials

8

Morsella

A mixture of Moringa oleifera and hibiscus sabdariffa. Nutritional supplement that acts as an immune booster.

HIV/AIDS management

Tanzania –MUHAS http://www.muchs.ac.tz/

Needs validation through clinical trials

9

Plants extract

Treatment for opportunistic infections of HIV

Kaposi’s Sarcoma

Kenya-KEMRI http://www.kemri.org webcite

Applied for patenting. Looking for commercial investor.

10

Whole plant extract

Treatment of Fibroids in women

Fibroids

Kenya- Moi University http://www.mu.ac.ke/ webcite

It is undergoing tests in humans in the form of pill formulations (Phase 1 clinical trials)

11

Plant extract

Has anti-sickling properties which are attributed to its ability to prolong or delay the time to polymerization of deoxy-Hb

Sickle cell anemia management

Nigeria-NIPRD http://www.niprd.org/ webcite

Orphan drug status by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicine Evaluation Agency (EMEA) in 2005. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-137075135.html webcite Limited commercialization but failed to scale up because of business failure.

12

Anti-Hepatocyte

Plant derivative-A treatment of liver infections especially liver cirrhosis

Liver ailments

Tanzania-NIMR http://www.nimr.or.tz/ webcite

Scientist was unsure how to commercialize. Needs validation though clinical trials.

13

Aloe vera derivatives

Skin ointment

Skin ailments

Tanzania –MUHAS http://www.muchs.ac.tz/ webcite

Needs validation through clinical trials

14

Aloe vera derivatives

Skin ointment

Skin ailments

Rwanda-IRST http://www.irst.ac.rw/ webcite

Scientist was unsure how to commercialize. Needs validation through clinical trials.

15

Plant extract

Prevents the effects of radiation during x-ray's hence preventing cancers

Anti-radiation

Nigeria-University of Ibadan

Scientist was unsure how to commercialize. Needs validation through clinical trials.

16

Mondia Tonic

Root of mondia whytei

Anti-depressant

Kenya-ICIPE http://www.icipe.org webcite

Partly commercialized. Needs validation through clinical trials to scale up commercialization.


Diagnostics


17

Monoclonal antibody test for detection of malaria

A dipstick that uses antibody antigen reactions to detect presence of malaria parasites in the body by testing urine

Malaria

Ghana-University of Ghana http://www.ug.edu.gh/ webcite

Still being developed. Has received funds from the Gates foundation to explore the concept further.

18

Monoclonal antibody test for detection of Schistosomiasis

Rapid visually read monoclonal antibody (MoAb) based dipstick

Schistosomiasis

Ghana- Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research http://www.noguchimedres.org/ webcite

Scientist has not attempted to commercialize. Ready for commercialization.

19

ELISA

A quick test for identifying MDR TB in sputum

Tuberculosis

Uganda-Makerere University http://mak.ac.ug/ webcite

No incentive to commercialize hence no product form developed.


Medical equipment and associated health technologies


20

Medical waste incinerator

A fuel free medical waste incinerator. Suitable for destruction of plastics. Uses medical waste as fuel by generating very hot gases.

Medical waste

Uganda-Makerere University http://mak.ac.ug/ webcite

WHO approved. Commercialized but needs scaling up.

21

Female sanitary towels

Sanitary towels developed from lemon grass. Cost ¼ of conventional sanitary towels and suitable for school girls

Sanitary towels

Uganda-Makerere University http://mak.ac.ug/ webcite

The test was undergoing more evaluation.

22

Insect repellant

Use of human odors to repel malaria causing mosquitoes

Malaria

Kenya-ICIPE http://www.icipe.org webcite

Patented-Ready for commercialization but formulation not developed.

23

Insect repellant

Plant extract

Malaria

Tanzania-NIMR http://www.nimr.or.tz webcite

Needs validation through clinical trials.

24

TBCide

Disinfectant. Standardized chlorine based decontaminant used to destroy MDR TB.

Tuberculosis. resistant bacteria on surfaces bacteria from hospital surfaces.

Kenya-KEMRI http://www.kemri.org webcite

Patented-Ready for commercial exploitation

25

Alternative methodology to extract and purify Artemisinin

To prepare derivatives or combine it with other anti-malarials to combat Artemisinin resistance

Malaria

Tanzania-NIMR http://www.nimr.or.tz webcite

Needs extraction equipment and equipment for further validation


*Scientists interviewed were asked not to disclose any potentially proprietary information. Reprinted from Simiyu, Ken et al. Science; 330: 1483-1484, 10 December 2010.

Al-Bader et al. BMC International Health and Human Rights 2010 10(Suppl 1):S1   doi:10.1186/1472-698X-10-S1-S1

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