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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

A retrospective study on the impact of comorbid depression or anxiety on healthcare resource use and costs among diabetic neuropathy patients

Luke Boulanger1*, Yang Zhao2, Yanjun Bao1 and Mason W Russell1

Author Affiliations

1 Health Economic Research and Quality of Life Evaluation, Abt Bio-Pharma Solutions, Inc, Lexington, MA, USA

2 Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Inc, Indianapolis, IN, USA

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BMC Health Services Research 2009, 9:111  doi:10.1186/1472-6963-9-111

Published: 30 June 2009

Abstract

Background

Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is a common complication of diabetes that has significant economic burden, especially for patients with comorbid depression or anxiety. This study examines and quantifies factors associated with healthcare costs among patients diagnosed with diabetic neuropathy (DN) with or without a comorbid diagnosis of depression or anxiety (DA) using retrospective administrative claims data. No study has examined the differences in economic outcomes depending on the presence of comorbid DA disorders.

Methods

Over-age-18 individuals with 1+ diagnosis of DN in 2005 were selected. The first observed DN claim was considered the "index date." All individuals had a 12-month pre-index and follow-up period. For both under-age-65 commercially insured and over-age-65 individuals with employer-sponsored Medicare supplemental insurance, we constructed 2 subgroups for individuals with DA (DN-DA) or without (DN-only). Patients' clinical characteristics over pre-index period were compared. Multivariate regressions were performed to assess whether DN-DA patients had higher utilization of healthcare resources and costs than DN-only patients, controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics.

Results

We identified 16,831 DN-only and 1,699 DN-DA patients in the Medicare supplemental cohort, as well as 17,205 and 3,105 in the commercially insured. DN-DA patients had higher prevalence of diabetes-related comorbidities for cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular/peripheral vascular disease, nephropathy, obesity, and hypoglycemic events than DN-only patients (all p < 0.05). Controlling for differences in demographic and clinical characteristics, DN-DA patients had $9,235 (p < 0.05) higher total healthcare costs than patients with DN-only among those with Medicare supplemental coverage ($26,718 vs. $17,483), and $10,389 (p < 0.05) more total costs among commercially insured ($29,775 vs. $19,386). Factors associated with increased costs included insurance type, geographical region, diabetes-related comorbidities, and insulin therapy.

Conclusion

These findings indicate that the healthcare costs were significantly higher for DN patients with depression or anxiety relative to those without such comorbid disorders.