Table 6

Crude and adjusted effect estimates of socioeconomic and demographic, quality of life, and health-related factors on seeking in the past 12 months (1) any DC vs. GP care only and (2) DC only vs. both GP and DC care: Results from logistic regression analyses among U.S. respondents from the Joint Canada/US Survey of Health, 2002–03

    Any DC vs. GP Care Only (n = 4160)

    DC Only vs. GP+DC Care (n = 595)

Adjusted effect estimates

Adjusted effect estimates

Variable

Category

Crude OR

Model 1* OR

95% CI

Model 2OR

95% CI

Crude OR

Model 1* OR

95% CI

Model 2OR

95% CI


Age (Years)

18–44

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

45–64

1.07

1.00

(0.81, 1.24)

1.04

(0.83, 1.32)

0.53

0.57

(0.32, 1.04)

0.66

(0.36, 1.21)

≥ 65

0.62

0.57

(0.44, 0.76)

0.73

(0.50, 1.07)

0.32

0.35

(0.16, 0.81)

0.61

(0.20, 1.84)

Per 10 years

0.90

0.90

(0.90, 1.00)

1.00

(0.90, 1.11)

0.73

0.82

(0.67, 0.90)

0.90

(0.74, 1.11)

Sex

Female

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Male

0.93

0.91

(0.74, 1.11)

0.93

(0.76, 1.15)

1.40

1.36

(0.80, 2.32)

1.34

(0.78, 2.32)

Race/ethnicity

White only

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Other/multiple

0.54

0.51

(0.39, 0.68)

0.50

(0.37, 0.67)

1.74

1.57

(0.78, 3.16)

0.97

(0.48, 1.98)

Education

No H.S. degree

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

H.S. degree

1.30

1.01

(0.68, 1.50)

1.05

(0.68, 1.62)

0.87

0.84

(0.31, 2.27)

1.26

(0.38, 4.17)

Some college

1.31

1.01

(0.65, 1.57)

1.13

(0.70, 1.80)

1.18

1.12

(0.39, 3.23)

1.83

(0.50, 6.68)

4-year degree

1.41

1.02

(0.68, 1.51)

1.11

(0.72, 1.71)

0.51

0.49

(0.18, 1.34)

0.87

(0.25, 3.02)

Marital status

Married

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Was married

0.86

0.97

(0.75, 1.25)

0.97

(0.74, 1.28)

0.96

1.12

(0.57, 2.20)

0.96

(0.48, 1.92)

Single

0.85

0.81

(0.61, 1.09)

0.85

(0.63, 1.15)

1.30

1.06

(0.52, 2.17)

1.05

(0.48, 2.30)

Income (adjusted for household size)

Highest quint.

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Upper middle

1.01

1.02

(0.73, 1.43)

1.00

(0.71, 1.40)

0.94

0.97

(0.38, 2.51)

0.93

(0.36, 2.40)

Middle

0.84

0.91

(0.64, 1.29)

0.89

(0.62, 1.27)

0.96

0.96

(0.39, 2.37)

0.82

(0.31, 2.14)

Lower middle

0.90

1.04

(0.73, 1.48)

1.00

(0.69, 1.46)

0.95

1.02

(0.39, 2.65)

0.51

(0.17, 1.55)

Lowest quint.

0.62

0.79

(0.54, 1.17)

0.72

(0.46, 1.15)

1.63

1.88

(0.73, 4.83)

1.43

(0.49, 4.19)

Main income source

Employment

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Other

0.66

0.79

(0.58, 1.07)

0.78

(0.57, 1.06)

0.52

0.69

(0.30, 1.55)

0.73

(0.26, 2.04)

HUI

Per 0.1 unit

1.02

1.00

(0.95, 1.05)

1.00

(0.95, 1.05)

1.01

0.99

(0.89, 1.12)

1.00

(0.87, 1.14)

Self-rated health

Excellent

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Very good

1.01

1.06

(0.81, 1.37)

1.04

(0.80, 1.35)

0.59

0.63

(0.31, 1.26)

0.72

(0.35, 1.49)

Good

0.82

0.90

(0.67, 1.19)

0.92

(0.68, 1.24)

1.20

1.30

(0.66, 2.54)

1.01

(0.48, 2.13)

Fair or poor

0.65

0.79

(0.56, 1.13)

0.70

(0.45, 1.10)

0.49

0.62

(0.20, 1.88)

0.69

(0.20, 2.30)

Depression (past year)

1+ episodes

1.34

1.30

(0.95, 1.79)

1.31

(0.91, 1.90)

1.02

0.99

(0.43, 2.27)

1.08

(0.42, 2.75)

Mental health (past year)

1+ visits

1.29

1.19

(0.91, 1.56)

1.15

(0.84, 1.56)

0.42

0.45

(0.16, 1.23)

0.26

(0.08, 0.82)

Emotional

Happy in life

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

problems

Not happy

1.03

1.02

(0.80, 1.30)

0.93

(0.69, 1.26)

0.99

1.02

(0.53, 1.98)

0.60

(0.26, 1.39)

Chronic conditions (lifetime history)

Asthma

1.11

1.12

(0.83, 1.50)

1.12

(0.83, 1.53)

0.20

0.21

(0.07, 0.58)

0.21

(0.07, 0.62)

Arthritis

1.12

1.32

(1.02, 1.69)

1.38

(1.05, 1.81)

0.68

0.95

(0.47, 1.92)

1.12

(0.52, 2.43)

Hypertension

0.66

0.73

(0.56, 0.94)

0.74

(0.56, 0.98)

0.12

0.13

(0.04, 0.46)

0.15

(0.04, 0.55)

Emphysema

0.72

0.78

(0.41, 1.49)

0.80

(0.38, 1.69)

0.43

0.45

(0.05, 3.79)

0.59

(0.06, 6.13)

Diabetes

0.57

0.71

(0.46, 1.08)

0.71

(0.45, 1.11)

Heart disease

0.60

0.77

(0.48, 1.23)

0.83

(0.50, 1.37)

0.59

0.83

(0.26, 2.63)

1.14

(0.37, 3.49)

CHD

0.66

0.90

(0.44, 1.85)

0.92

(0.42, 1.99)

0.25

0.30

(0.03, 2.95)

0.49

(0.06, 4.25)

Angina

0.42

0.54

(0.28, 1.03)

0.57

(0.28, 1.14)

1.80

2.98

(0.71, 12.47)

4.09

(0.92, 18.10)

1 or more

0.83

0.93

(0.74, 1.17)

0.94

(0.74, 1.19)

0.33

0.38

(0.20, 0.74)

0.40

(0.19, 0.82)

Per condition

0.88

0.94

(0.86, 1.03)

0.94

(0.85, 1.05)

0.50

0.53

(0.36, 0.78)

0.56

(0.38, 0.83)

Pain/activity limits

No pain

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Pain

1.26

1.37

(1.08, 1.72)

1.70

(1.24, 2.33)

0.79

0.94

(0.50, 1.78)

1.12

(0.53, 2.39)

Activity restrictions

Never

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Sometimes

1.29

1.34

(1.05, 1.69)

1.39

(1.07, 1.81)

0.87

1.02

(0.53, 1.95)

0.94

(0.47, 1.87)

Often

0.90

1.07

(0.77, 1.49)

1.19

(0.77, 1.83)

0.48

0.54

(0.19, 1.58)

0.50

(0.16, 1.58)

Back/neck problems

None

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Disabling

1.99

2.14

(1.62, 2.83)

2.19

(1.62, 2.96)

0.72

0.75

(0.34, 1.69)

1.04

(0.44, 2.43)

Smoking status

Never

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Past

1.21

1.26

(1.00, 1.60)

1.25

(0.98, 1.60)

0.95

1.10

(0.59, 2.04)

1.32

(0.68, 2.58)

Current

0.99

0.98

(0.75, 1.28)

0.97

(0.73, 1.30)

0.71

0.64

(0.31, 1.35)

0.68

(0.32, 1.47)

Body weight

Under/normal

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Overweight

1.07

1.15

(0.91, 1.46)

1.16

(0.91, 1.47)

1.44

1.52

(0.79, 2.94)

1.64

(0.82, 3.24)

Obese

1.16

1.30

(1.00, 1.69)

1.29

(0.98, 1.69)

0.84

0.85

(0.41, 1.77)

0.78

(0.35, 1.73)

Physical activity (past 3 months)

Active

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Moderate

0.96

0.97

(0.72, 1.32)

1.03

(0.75, 1.40)

1.05

1.12

(0.48, 2.62)

1.02

(0.42, 2.43)

Inactive

0.91

0.94

(0.73, 1.21)

0.93

(0.71, 1.21)

1.37

1.49

(0.75, 2.98)

1.21

(0.60, 2.46)

Activity frequency (past 3 months)

Regular

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Occasional

1.12

1.13

(0.87, 1.48)

1.15

(0.87, 1.52)

0.68

0.67

(0.30, 1.46)

0.60

(0.26, 1.39)

Infrequent

0.93

1.00

(0.79, 1.27)

0.97

(0.74, 1.26)

1.21

1.27

(0.68, 2.35)

1.11

(0.57, 2.17)

Hospitalization (past year)

None

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1 or more

0.87

0.86

(0.63, 1.19)

0.85

(0.60, 1.21)

0.38

0.45

(0.16, 1.23)

0.58

(0.19, 1.70)

Prescriptions (past month)

None

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1 or more

0.97

0.99

(0.79, 1.25)

1.04

(0.82, 1.31)

0.20

0.23

(0.13, 0.42)

0.23

(0.12, 0.44)

Medications (past 2 days)

Per medication

0.94

0.95

(0.89, 1.02)

0.96

(0.89, 1.03)

0.50

0.53

(0.38, 0.72)

0.51

(0.36, 0.70)

Insurance (past year)

Insured

0.81

0.74

(0.51, 1.07)

0.73

(0.49, 1.07)

0.17

0.18

(0.09, 0.38)

0.21

(0.10, 0.44)

Unmet needs (past year)

None

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Any

1.03

1.04

(0.77, 1.40)

0.99

(0.70, 1.39)

0.85

0.79

(0.36, 1.73)

0.61

(0.21, 1.74)

Regular doctor (past year)

No

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Yes

0.60

0.61

(0.45, 0.81)

0.59

(0.44, 0.81)

0.09

0.10

(0.05, 0.17)

0.09

(0.05, 0.18)

Health care quality (past year)

Excellent

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Good

0.94

0.97

(0.79, 1.20)

0.93

(0.74, 1.16)

1.40

1.40

(0.79, 2.46)

1.30

(0.71, 2.38)

Fair or poor

0.95

1.00

(0.72, 1.39)

0.95

(0.67, 1.35)

1.17

1.11

(0.47, 2.62)

1.09

(0.39, 3.04)

Health care satisfaction (past year)

Very satisfied

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Somewhat sat.

1.04

1.03

(0.83, 1.29)

0.96

(0.77, 1.21)

1.73

1.57

(0.88, 2.80)

1.31

(0.70, 2.48)

Not satisfied

1.09

1.12

(0.81, 1.56)

1.03

(0.73, 1.47)

3.35

2.57

(1.26, 5.23)

2.83

(1.26, 6.36)

Quality of MD care (past year)

Excellent

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Good

0.95

0.97

(0.76, 1.24)

0.94

(0.73, 1.21)

0.46

0.51

(0.20, 1.27)

0.56

(0.20, 1.55)

Fair or poor

0.69

0.75

(0.47, 1.21)

0.71

(0.43, 1.19)

1.29

1.32

(0.33, 5.27)

1.58

(0.32, 7.97)

Satisfaction of MD care (past year)

Very satisfied

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Somewhat sat.

0.84

0.83

(0.63, 1.09)

0.77

(0.58, 1.03)

1.89

1.70

(0.68, 4.30)

1.73

(0.64, 4.68)

Not satisfied

0.83

0.81

(0.48, 1.37)

0.72

(0.41, 1.29)

1.26

1.09

(0.23, 5.22)

0.99

(0.15, 6.27)


* Estimated effects adjusted for age (18–44, 45–64, 65+ years), sex, and race/ethnicity (white only, other/multiple races or ethnicities). Estimated effects adjusted for age (18–44, 45–64, 65+ years), sex, race/ethnicity (white only, other/multiple races or ethnicities), education (no high school degree, high school degree or GED, some college, 4-year college degree or certificate), main source of income (employment, other sources), health-related quality of life (Health Utility Index score [continuous]), and health insurance status (insured in past 12 months, not insured in past 12 months).

Odds ratio not shown because of singularities in data for fitting model.

OR = odds ratio; CI = confidence interval; GP = general practitioner or family doctor; DC = Doctor of Chiropractic; HUI = Health Utility Index; CHD = coronary heart disease; MD = medical doctor.

Hurwitz and Chiang BMC Health Services Research 2006 6:49   doi:10.1186/1472-6963-6-49

Open Data