Table 1

Frequency distributions (weighted percentages unless indicated otherwise) of socioeconomic, demographic, and health characteristics of respondents, and their health-care utilization, by country: Joint Canada/US Survey of Health, 2002–03*

    United States

    Canada

Variable

Category

Any DC care (n = 595)

Total pop. (N = 5183)

Any DC care (n = 448)

Total pop. (N = 3505)


Socioeconomic and demographic factors:

Age (Years)

18–44

50.3

52.3

56.4

52.3

45–64

37.2

31.7

32.8

32.1

≥ 65

12.5

16.0

10.8

15.6

Mean (SE)

45.2 (0.7)

45.4 (0.3)

43.4 (0.8)

45.1 (0.3)

Median

44

43

42

43

Sex

Male

43.4

48.0

47.0

49.1

Female

56.6

52.0

53.0

50.9

Race/ethnicity

White only

80.2

69.3

86.8

81.0

Other/multiple

16.7

26.4

13.0

17.7

Education

No high school degree or GED

8.4

11.3

15.1

19.4

High school degree or GED

35.8

35.8

32.4

30.6

Some college

14.1

35.3

20.2

21.2

4-year college degree or certificate

39.0

35.3

31.2

27.3

Marital status

Married or living with partner

65.9

61.3

69.6

64.7

Widowed

4.6

6.1

3.9

5.7

Separated or divorced

11.4

10.4

7.8

7.7

Single

15.3

18.5

18.4

20.9

Household income (adjusted for household size)

Lowest quintile

11.3

15.3

11.5

17.0

Lower middle

18.0

16.4

18.9

17.5

Middle

15.4

14.5

16.6

16.1

Upper middle

18.3

15.2

20.2

17.6

Highest

18.2

14.8

21.6

16.0

Main income source

Employment

77.3

72.4

79.7

75.0

Health status and chronic conditions:

Chronic conditions (lifetime history)

Asthma

13.1

11.4

12.3

10.4

Arthritis

23.2

18.6

20.3

16.8

Hypertension

19.9

22.7

13.0

18.3

Emphysema or COPD

1.8

2.1

1.2

1.3

Diabetes

5.1

6.7

3.9

4.7

Heart disease

4.7

6.0

4.5

5.1

Coronary heart disease

2.1

2.4

1.4

1.8

Angina

1.5

2.9

2.1

3.7

1 or more conditions

38.4

36.8

34.2

33.4

Depression

Episode in past 12 months

11.2

8.5

9.0

8.0

Mental health visit

Visit in past 12 months

14.8

10.5

14.5

10.1

Emotional problems

Happy and interested in life

77.7

77.9

84.8

80.8

Health Utility Index

Mean (SE)

0.87 (0.01)

0.87 (<0.01)

0.87 (0.01)

0.88 (<0.01)

Self-rated health

Excellent

26.1

26.4

23.5

24.0

Very good

36.9

32.5

39.1

36.4

Good

24.9

26.5

25.3

28.0

Fair or poor

12.1

14.6

12.2

11.5

Activity restrictions and lifestyle factors:

Pain/activity limits

No pain or discomfort

75.2

80.6

75.3

82.0

Activity restrictions

Often

9.9

10.1

10.0

9.6

Sometimes

24.4

18.6

25.4

19.8

Never

64.6

69.9

63.9

69.6

Back or neck problems

Cause of activity limitations

16.3

9.1

20.1

10.4

Smoking status

Current

19.7

22.3

23.6

24.8

Past

28.4

23.5

31.5

28.7

Never

51.5

53.7

44.7

46.2

Body weight

Under/normal weight (BMI <25)

40.4

43.5

47.6

48.8

Overweight (BMI 25 – <30)

32.9

32.5

35.2

32.7

Obese (BMI > = 30)

22.9

19.8

14.8

14.8

Physical activity (past 3 months)

Active

22.0

21.1

27.0

26.4

Moderate

20.7

20.2

25.2

25.5

Inactive

55.2

55.9

46.9

47.0

Activity frequency (past 3 months)

Regular

56.2

55.0

67.1

65.8

Occasional

18.3

16.9

18.4

16.4

Infrequent

23.5

25.2

13.7

16.7

Health-care use and perceptions:

Hospitalization

1 or more in past 12 months

10.3

10.2

7.7

9.1

No. of prescriptions

1 or more in past month

66.6

57.5

57.8

55.2

No. of different prescription medications

<3 in past 2 days

47.3

37.5

44.4

39.9

3–5 in past 2 days

15.6

14.2

9.8

11.7

6+ in past 2 days

3.7

5.6

3.0

3.3

Health insurance

Insured in past 12 months

89.2

86.9

NA

NA7

Unmet health-care needs

Any in past 12 months

12.5

13.1

11.6

10.7

Regular doctor

Yes in past 12 months

84.3

79.5

89.2

84.7

Health care quality (past 12 months)

Excellent

41.6

38.2

33.6

36.5

Good

44.4

42.5

48.1

43.3

Fair or poor

11.1

10.5

16.7

13.9

Health care satisfaction (past 12 months)

Very satisfied

50.8

48.5

41.2

40.8

Somewhat satisfied

35.9

33.3

40.7

40.4

Less than satisfied

10.3

9.1

16.1

12.1

Quality of MD care(past 12 months)

Excellent

59.6

56.6

52.3

58.3

Good

32.6

32.6

36.0

33.1

Fair or poor

5.2

6.8

11.1

6.9

Satisfaction of MD care(past 12 months)

Very satisfied

69.2

65.2

61.0

64.8

Somewhat satisfied

23.2

25.7

29.2

27.0

Less than satisfied

4.2

4.8

8.9

6.1

Health-care use(past 12 months)

Any chiropractic care

100

11.4

100

12.9

GP care only

0

67.2

0

68.8

Both GP and DC care

85.3

9.7

87.7

11.3

Chiropractic care only

14.7

1.7

13.3

1.6

No GP or DC care

0

20.7

0

17.5

Chiropractic visits (past 12 months)

0

0

88.5

0

86.8

1

20.9

2.4

14.7

1.9

2–5

34.9

4.0

34.1

4.4

6–10

15.8

1.8

20.4

2.6

11–20

18.0

2.1

19.5

2.5

21–30

4.6

0.5

6.8

0.9

31+

5.8

0.7

4.5

0.6

Mean, median

8.22, 4

0.94, 0

8.80, 5

1.14, 0

General practitioner or family doctor visits (past 12 months)

0

14.7

22.5

12.3

19.1

1

22.4

22.8

19.8

21.8

2–5

50.0

41.8

49.7

42.8

6–10

8.2

7.4

9.0

7.9

11–20

2.7

3.9

8.0

6.6

21–30

1.1

0.7

1.0

0.7

31+

0.9

0.5

0.2

0.5

Mean, median

3.18, 2

2.84, 2

3.69, 2

3.31, 2

All health-care visits (past 12 months)

0

0

6.9

0

5.2

1

0.7

7.3

0.9

7.9

2–5

14.6

38.6

11.4

39.0

6–10

24.1

22.1

22.4

22.3

11–20

28.7

15.3

32.3

15.5

21–30

14.7

4.9

17.6

5.7

31+

17.2

4.9

15.5

4.5

Mean, median

17.11, 14

8.69, 5

17.97, 15

8.66, 5


* Weighted percentages may not sum to 100 because of missing data or exclusion of certain categories; percentages weighted to account for age, sex, region (Canada only), and race/ethnicity (U.S. only); 595 and 5183 represent 23,513,576 and 206,417,185 adults, respectively, in the U.S.; 448 and 3505 represent 3,105,017 and 24,046,837 adults, respectively, in Canada.

Most recent visit among respondents reporting at least one visit to a physician in the past 12 months.

Weighted percentages sum to greater than 100 because categories are not mutually exclusive.

DC = Doctor of Chiropractic; SE = standard error; COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; BMI = body mass index; NA = not applicable; GP = general practitioner or family doctor; MD = medical doctor.

Hurwitz and Chiang BMC Health Services Research 2006 6:49   doi:10.1186/1472-6963-6-49

Open Data