Open Access Research article

Dose–response effects for depression and Schizophrenia management on hospital utilization in Illinois Medicaid: a multivariate regression analysis

Gregory D Berg1*, Shawn Donnelly1, Kathleen Warnick1, Wendie Medina2 and Mary Miller3

Author Affiliations

1 McKesson Corporation, Westminster, CO, USA

2 Illinois Department of Healthcare and Family Services, Springfield, IL, USA

3 Formerly with Illinois Department of Healthcare and Family Services, Springfield, IL, USA

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BMC Health Services Research 2014, 14:288  doi:10.1186/1472-6963-14-288

Published: 3 July 2014



The prevalence of schizophrenia and depression in the United States is far higher among Medicaid recipients than in the general population. Individuals suffering from mental illness, including schizophrenia and depression, also have higher rates of emergency department utilization, which is costly and may not generate the positive health outcomes desired. Disease management programs strive to help individuals suffering from chronic illnesses better manage their condition(s) and seek health care in the appropriate settings. The objective of this manuscript is to estimate a dose–response impact on hospital inpatient and emergency room utilizations for any reason by Medicaid recipients with depression or schizophrenia who received disease management contacts.


Multivariate regression analysis of panel data taken from administrative claims was conducted to test the hypothesis that increased contacts lower the likelihood of all-cause inpatient admissions and emergency room visits. Subjects included 6,274 members of Illinois’ non-institutionalized Medicaid-only aged, blind or disabled population diagnosed with depression or schizophrenia. The statistical measure is the odds ratio. The odds ratio association is between the monthly utilization indicators and the number of contacts (doses) a member had for each particular disease management intervention.


Higher numbers of intervention contacts for Medicaid recipients diagnosed with depression or schizophrenia were associated with statistically significant reductions in all-cause inpatient admissions and emergency room utilizations.


There is a high correlation between depression and schizophrenia disease management contacts and lowered all-cause hospital inpatient and emergency room utilizations.