Table 4

Standard ML and bootstrapping methods for the estimation of structural model
ML estimates Bootstrapping estimates of β BC 95% CI of β
Effect/Path way β SE βs t-value SE SE-SE Bias SE-Bias Lower Upper
Direct effect
a. LO → IM 0.86 0.102 0.87 8.40*** 0.116 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.66 1.11
b. IM → OC 0.67 0.264 0.81 2.52* 0.740 0.007 0.152 0.010 0.03 2.13
c’. LO → OC 0.15 0.238 0.19 0.64 0.725 0.007 −0.147 0.010 −1.18 0.78
Indirect effect
a × b 0.57 0.236 0.71 2.41*‡ 0.728 0.09 2.42

Note: Based on 5,000 bootstrap samples; ML maximum likelihood, BC 95% CI biased corrected confidence intervals (95%), β unstandardized path coefficient, βs standardized path coefficient, SE standard error; computed according to Sobel (1982) formula of indirect effect.

*p < 0.05, ***p < 0.001.

Tsai

Tsai BMC Health Services Research 2014 14:152   doi:10.1186/1472-6963-14-152

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