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Elements of effective palliative care models: a rapid review

Tim Luckett123*, Jane Phillips245, Meera Agar367, Claudia Virdun2, Anna Green2 and Patricia M Davidson28

Author Affiliations

1 Improving Palliative Care through Clinical Trials (ImPaCCT), Sydney, NSW, Australia

2 University of Technology Sydney (UTS), Faculty of Health, Building 10, Level 7, 235-253 Jones St, Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia

3 South Western Sydney Clinical School, University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney, NSW, Australia

4 The Cunningham Centre for Palliative Care Sydney, Sacred Heart Hospice, Sydney, NSW, Australia

5 School of Nursing, The University of Notre Dame Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia

6 HammondCare, Sydney, NSW, Australia

7 The Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Sydney, NSW, Australia

8 School of Nursing, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA

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BMC Health Services Research 2014, 14:136  doi:10.1186/1472-6963-14-136

Published: 26 March 2014



Population ageing, changes to the profiles of life-limiting illnesses and evolving societal attitudes prompt a critical evaluation of models of palliative care. We set out to identify evidence-based models of palliative care to inform policy reform in Australia.


A rapid review of electronic databases and the grey literature was undertaken over an eight week period in April-June 2012. We included policy documents and comparative studies from countries within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) published in English since 2001. Meta-analysis was planned where >1 study met criteria; otherwise, synthesis was narrative using methods described by Popay et al. (2006).


Of 1,959 peer-reviewed articles, 23 reported systematic reviews, 9 additional RCTs and 34 non-randomised comparative studies. Variation in the content of models, contexts in which these were implemented and lack of detailed reporting meant that elements of models constituted a more meaningful unit of analysis than models themselves. Case management was the element most consistently reported in models for which comparative studies provided evidence for effectiveness. Essential attributes of population-based palliative care models identified by policy and addressed by more than one element were communication and coordination between providers (including primary care), skill enhancement, and capacity to respond rapidly to individuals’ changing needs and preferences over time.


Models of palliative care should integrate specialist expertise with primary and community care services and enable transitions across settings, including residential aged care. The increasing complexity of care needs, services, interventions and contextual drivers warrants future research aimed at elucidating the interactions between different components and the roles played by patient, provider and health system factors. The findings of this review are limited by its rapid methodology and focus on model elements relevant to Australia’s health system.

Palliative care; Models of care; Rapid review; Case management; Home based care; Nursing homes; Specialist palliative care; Acute care; Emergency departments