Table 4

Geographic differences in payment and coping mechanisms
Variables Rural Peri-urban Urban p-value R:U ratio
Out-of-Pocket but reimbursed 6(43) 1(7) 7(50) 0.051 0.86
Out-of-Pocket without reimbursement 369(36) 382(37) 284(27) 0.24 1.3
Health Insurance 2(50) 1(25) 1(25) 0.82 2
Instalment 36(34) 45(43) 24(23) 0.28 1.5
In-kind 1(17) 1(17) 4(66) 0.11 0.25
Others 8(24) 7(21) 18(55) 0.003 0.44
Payment coping mechanisms by geographic location (%)
Own money 385(36) 395(37) 286(27) 0.004 1.35
Borrowed money 8(26) 7(23) 16(51) 0.01 0.5
Sold moveable assets 0 0 1(100) 0.28 0
Sold family land 0 0 0 N/A 0
Payment subsidised 13(46) 1(4) 14(50) 0.001 0.93
Payment deferred 7(78) 1(11) 1(11) 0.03 7
Community solidarity/someone else paid 2(11) 12(63) 5(26) 0.03 0.4
Exempted 3(37) 1(13) 4(50) 0.26 0.75
Others 3(21) 3(21) 8(58) 0.03 0.38

Ewelukwa et al.

Ewelukwa et al. BMC Health Services Research 2013 13:87   doi:10.1186/1472-6963-13-87

Open Data