Table 2

Demographic measures included in the seven funding formulae
Age Sex Socioeconomic Ethnicity Geography
England [29] 5 year age bands Standardised no qualifications Supply Index:(c)
0-85+ years Young people not staying in education Disability living allowance claimants over 60
Pension credit claimants Mean Waiting Time
Low birth weight at births Access to admitted care providers
Income Deprivation affecting children Distance to outpatient providers
Disability living allowance claimants Distance to admitted patient providers
Incapacity Benefit/Severe Disability Allowance Claimants Number of GPs
Accessibility for acute provider capacity
Accessibility score for outpatient capacity
Scotland [31] 5 year age bands Male Dependant on Care Programme: Maternity: Urban–rural classification (10 categories)
0-90 + years Female
Mental Health:% of people in one person households
% in social rented housing
Maternity: Mean house price
New South Wales [26] 5 year age bands Male Index of Occupation & Education % Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islanders Accessibility/Remoteness index of Australia
0-85 + years Female
Netherlands [32,33] 20 age categories Male Source of Income (Benefits, self employed, employed with insurance, no source of income) Urbanisation
0, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14…90+ Female
Average Income Proximity of care facilities (per 1000 inhabitants within 25 km radius)
Proportion of non-western immigrants
Marital Status
New Zealand [34] 5 year age bands Male Deprivation quintiles based on Index of Deprivation (NZDep2006) Maori, Pacific, Other
0-85 + years Female
Ontario [35] 4 age categories for person profile Male Quintile of Neighbourhood Income per Person Equivalent Rurality (Non Rural, Rural, Very Rural)
Female (Dichotomised into Low SES (Quintile 1) and Higher SES (Quintiles 2-5)) Small Hospital (Yes/No)
1-17, 18-59, 60-79, 80+
2 age categories for ranking clinical group
0-17, 18+
Stockholm [36,37] 5 & 10 year age bands Marital Status (Married or cohabitating with children, lone)
0-80+ years House tenure (small houses, other)
Educational Level (At least upper secondary, lower education, missing data)
Employment Status (early retirement, other)

(c)England’s Supply Index is set at national average rates in the final funding models, neutralising its effect on allocation.

Data sourced from:

[29] (Department of Health. 2011).

[31](NHSScotland Resource Allocation Committee. 2007).

[26] (New South Wales Health. 2005).

[32] (Ministry of Health Welfare and Sport 2008).

[33] (Ministry of Health Welfare and Sport 2012).

[34] (Ministry of Health. 2004).

[35] (Health System Information Management and Investment Division. 2011).

[36] (Andersson et al. 2000).

[37] (Andersson et al. 2010).

Penno et al.

Penno et al. BMC Health Services Research 2013 13:470   doi:10.1186/1472-6963-13-470

Open Data