Table 4

Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios for associations between health information technology capacity and quality of care in federally qualified health centers for select covariates
Receipt of discharge summaries Patient reminders Timely appointment for specialty care
Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
HIT Capacity High 1.62 1.43 1.87 1.74 1.49 1.77
(1.34, 1.95)* (1.01, 2.40)* (1.55, 2.27)*** (1.23, 2.45)** (1.23, 1.79)*** (1.24, 2.53)**
Medium 1.19 1.28 1.04 0.93 0.74 1.15
(0.97, 1.46) (0.87, 1.88) (0.83, 1.31) (0.61, 1.41) (0.59, 0.94)* (0.75, 1.75)
Low [ref]
Incentive for patient satisfaction Yes 1.41 1.08 1.86 1.49 1.19 0.97
(1.17, 1.70)*** (0.74, 1.57) (1.55, 2.24)*** (1.05, 2.14)* (0.99, 1.44) (0.66, 1.42)
No [ref]
HRSA Disparity Coordination Yes 1.58 1.92 0.91 0.61 0.87 1.11
(1.22, 2.04)*** (1.21, 3.04)* (0.69, 1.18) (0.36, 1.01) (0.66, 1.13) (0.65, 1.91)
No [ref]
Overall Measure of QI Support Yes 1.33 1.02 1.45 1.09 1.66 1.70
Some or none [ref] (1.15, 1.54)*** (0.75, 1.38) (1.24, 1.69)*** (0.80, 1.50) (1.42, 1.95)*** (1.23, 2.36)**
Physician vacancies Yes 1.01 1.21 0.87 0.81 0.73 0.71
(0.85, 1.21) (0.87, 1.68) (0.72, 1.05) (0.59, 1.11) (0.61, 0.88)** (0.51, 0.99)*
No [ref]
Nurse vacancies Yes 0.62 0.63 1.01 1.10 0.78 0.99
(0.51, 0.76)*** (0.46, 0.87)** (0.81, 1.25) (0.79, 1.52) (0.63, 0.96)* (0.71, 1.39)
No [ref]
Hospital Affiliation All 2.42 1.96 1.53 1.17 1.71 1.42
(2.08, 2.80)*** (1.44, 2.67)*** (1.31, 1.78)*** (0.85, 1.59) (1.47, 1.99)*** (1.03, 1.95)*
Some or none [ref]
Usual Source of Care Usual/Often 1.84 1.37 2.34 1.51 0.99 0.88
(1.44, 2.34)*** (0.82, 2.67) (1.73, 3.15)*** (0.87, 2.62) (0.77, 1.28) (0.53, 1.46)
Some/Rarely/None [ref]
Percent Medicaid 4.73 1.41 3.13 3.10 0.70 0.09
(2.84, 7.86)*** (0.48, 4.12) (1.88, 5.22)*** (1.02, 9.42)* (0.42, 1.19) (0.03, 0.30)***
Percent minority High (50% or more) 0.52 0.52 1.26 1.20 0.55 0.41
(0.41, 0.65)*** (0.31, 0.88)* (1.01, 1.59)* (0.74, 1.95) (0.44, 0.69)*** (0.25, 0.69)**
Medium (5–49%) 0.84 0.79 1.11 0.73 0.72 0.56
Low (<5%) [ref] (0.66, 1.07) (0.47, 1.34) (0.87, 1.42) (0.45, 1.19) (0.57, 0.91)** (0.34, 0.94)*
Size Large 1.20 1.12 1.28 1.04 1.18 1.92
(0.96, 1.50) (0.71, 1.77) (1.02, 1.62)* (0.67, 1.61) (0.94, 1.49) (1.22, 3.01)**
Medium 1.29 1.26 1.27 1.10 1.07 1.29
(1.09, 1.51)** (0.90, 1.77) (1.07, 1.50)** (0.79, 1.54) (0.91, 1.27) (0.90, 1.84)
Small [ref]
Region Midwest 0.61 0.54 0.88 1.37 0.98 1.51
(0.47, 0.79)*** (0.33, 0.90)* (0.69, 1.13) (0.85, 2.20) (0.78, 1.24) (0.91, 2.50)
South 0.36 0.28 0.69 0.71 0.52 0.54
(0.29, 0.46)*** (0.17, 0.44)*** (0.56, 0.86) (0.44, 1.15) (0.42, 0.64)*** (0.33, 0.89)*
West 0.33 0.28 0.89 1.09 0.61 0.89
(0.26, 0.41)*** (0.17, 0.44)*** (0.71, 1.12) (0.68, 1.75) (0.49, 0.77)*** (0.55, 1.45)
Northeast [ref]
Urbanicity Urban 0.87 0.87 0.89 0.60 1.09 1.65
(0.74, 1.04) (0.59, 1.27) (0.75, 1.06) (0.42, 0.86)** (0.91, 1.30) (1.11, 2.46)*
Rural [ref]

Source: The 2009 National Survey of Federally Qualified Health Centers; HIT-Health Information Technology.

HIT capacity based on health centers’ possession of 16 functionalities of technologies; QI-Quality Improvement.

Odds ratios compare variables versus their reference category in terms of having improvements in the outcome measures.

OR-Odds Ratio; CI- Confidence Interval; ref-ref correspond to the reference group in the association analysis.

Adjusted odds account for the other variables in the table, which account for: QI initiatives, workforce, usual source of care, as well as demographic variables.

* p <.05; ** p <.01; *** p <.001.

Frimpong et al.

Frimpong et al. BMC Health Services Research 2013 13:35   doi:10.1186/1472-6963-13-35

Open Data