Table 3

SAQ item characteristics
Dimensions and survey questions, numbered % Missing data (i.e.,% answered not applicable) Mean (SD) Agree (%) Disagree (%) CVI-Index* CFA: Standardised model*
Factor loading S.E.
Teamwork climate
1. Nurse input is well received in this clinical area. 0 (0) 4.40 (.737) 88.4 1.3 0.81 0.660** 0.047
2. In this clinical area, it is difficult to speak up if I perceive a problem with patient care***. 0 (0.3) 4.33 (.984) 7.5 84.6 0.90 0.550** 0.056
3. Disagreements in this clinical area are resolved appropriately (i.e., not who is right, but what is best for the patient) 0.6 (1.3) 4.07 (.856) 77 4.2 0.78 0.626** 0.051
4. I have the support I need from other personnel to care for patients. 0.3 (0) 4.08 (.825) 80.5 3.5 0.88 0.572** 0.055
5. It is easy for personnel in this clinical area to ask questions when there is something that they do not understand. 0 (0) 4.50 (.726) 93.1 2.5 0.95 0.633** 0.052
6. The physicians and nurses here work together as a well-coordinated team. 0.3 (0) 3.65 (.786) 58.2 5.7 0.86 0.402** 0.062
Safety climate
7. I would feel safe being treated here as a patient. 0 (0.6) 3.92 (.759) 72.2 2.5 0.95 0.610** 0.046
8. Medical errors are handled appropriately in this clinical area. 0 (2.8) 4.09 (.779) 81.6 3.9 0.88 0.707** 0.038
9. I know the proper channels to direct questions regarding patient safety in this clinical area. 0.9 (2.8) 4.42 (.725) 90.9 2.0 0.76 0.577** 0.055
10. I receive appropriate feedback about my performance. 0 (0) 3.77 (.990) 63.0 9.1 0.79 0.625** 0.043
11. In this clinical area, it is difficult to discuss errors***. 0 (0.3) 4.05 (.933) 7.2 79.2 0.95 0.609** 0.045
12. I am encouraged by my colleagues to report any patient safety concerns I may have 0 (2.5) 3.88 (.986) 70.4 10.0 0.86 0.550** 0.048
13. The culture in this clinical area makes it easy to learn from the errors of others. 0.3 (2.2) 3.93 (.973) 72.3 8.7 0.75 0.670** 0.041
Job satisfaction
14. I like my job. 0 (0.3) 4.61 (.640) 94.3 0.9 0.75 0.602** 0.055
15. Working in this hospital is like being part of a large family. 0.6 (2.2) 3.62 (.954) 60.3 12.6 0.69 0.706** 0.047
16. This hospital is a good place to work. 0.3 (0.6) 4.28 (.745) 87.0 1.9 0.81 0.797** 0.033
17. I am proud to work at this hospital. 0.9 (1.6) 4.16 (.840) 83.0 4.2 0.73 0.790** 0.035
18. Moral in this clinical area is high. 0.3 (0.6) 4.05 (.781) 78.8 2.8 0.88 0.754** 0.038
Stress recognition
19. When my workload becomes excessive, my performance is impaired. 0 (0.3) 3.47 (1.138) 53.0 21.8 0.88 0.757** 0.040
20. I am less effective at work when fatigued. 0.3 (0.3) 3.65 (1.108) 59.3 16.4 0.92 0.862** 0.032
21. I am more likely to make errors in tense or hostile situations. 0.3 (0.6) 3.62 (1.141) 59.2 20.3 0.86 0.793** 0.038
22. Fatigue impairs my performance during emergency situations (e.g., emergency resuscitation, seizure). 0.6 (9.7) 2.88 (1.327) 37.5 47.7 0.45 0.768** 0.048
Perceptions of management
23. Management supports my daily efforts:
Unit levels: 0.3 (0) 3.90 (.973) 67.5 7.5 0.81 0.556** 0.057
Hospital level: 0.6 (25.1) 2.80 (1.146) 31.6 39.7 Excluded from analysis
24. Management does not knowingly compromise the safety of patients.
Unit level: 0.9 (13.2) 3.42 (1.660) 59.1 34.7 0.35 Excluded from analysis
Hospital level: 1.3 (33.5) 3.30 (1.448) 51.9 33.0 Excluded from analysis
26. I am provided with adequate, timely information about events in the hospital that might affect my work.
Unit level: 0.6 (2.6) 4.06 (.840) 77.6 4.9 0.78 0.676** 0.054
Hospital: 1.9 (26.0) 3.69 (.987) 66.5 13.0 Excluded from analysis
27. The levels of staffing in this clinical area are sufficient to handle the number of patients. 0.3 (0) 3.45 (1.070) 49.1 15.7 0.82 0.345** 0.065
Working conditions
25. Problem personnel are dealt constructively in hospital.
Unit level: 0.9 (10.7) 3.71 (.995) 61.3 11.0 0.76 0.725** 0.064
Hospital level: 1.6 (53.7) 3.32 (.942) 39.9 16.2 Excluded from analysis
28. This hospital does a good job of training new personnel. 0.6 (1.6) 4.03 (.969) 73.4 6.1 0.96 0.635** 0.049
29. All the necessary information for diagnostic and therapeutic decisions is routinely available to me. 0.6 (1.6) 4.14 (.719) 82.1 2.6 0.92 0.462** 0.062
30. Trainees in my discipline are adequately supervised. 0.3 (5.3) 4.24 (.830) 83.3 3.3 0.90 0.711** 0.049

*Analysis based on the 319 participants’ pairwise present data.

**p < .001 for all standardized factor loadings; ***Items reverse scored.

Zimmermann et al.

Zimmermann et al. BMC Health Services Research 2013 13:347   doi:10.1186/1472-6963-13-347

Open Data